Dec 27, 2013

Academic articles in 3rd week of Dec 2013

Here is the list of academic articles published online in the 3rd week of Dec, 2013.

This Project Report covers Malaysia’s 13th General Election (GE 13) that was held on May 5, 2013. As was customary, elections were held at the same time for Parliament and the State Legislative Assembly in all states except Sarawak that had last held its state election in 2011. The principal objective of this Report is to survey and analyze key issues, outcomes and implications related to GE 13 that, according to expectations, turned out to be the most tensely contested general election in the political history of Malaysia. The results of GE 13, summarized in a later section, below, bear quite complex interpretations and its implications for the power balance between the ruling coalition, Barisan Nasional (BN, or National Front) and the opposition coalition, Pakatan Rakyat (PR, or People’s Alliance) and the likely directions of future politics.

  • Hamid, Ahmad Fauzi Abdul (2013) 'Political Islam and Islamist politics in Malaysia.', Trends in Southeast Asia, 2013(#2) available:

- Najib Razak’s tenure as Malaysia’s sixth Prime Minister has witnessed vigorous drives towards multiple visions of political Islam, separately orchestrated by both overtly political groups and non-state activist clusters.
- While Islam has always been a pivotal factor in Malaysian politics, interpretations of Islam have not uncommonly arisen among successive generations of Malaysian Muslims in both doctrine and practice.
- In addition, the rich cultural diversity of Southeast Asia helped sway Malaysian Islam towards accommodating mores from various civilisational traditions, the latest manifestation being Abdullah Ahmad Badawi’s Islam Hadhari.
- Since the assumption of power by Najib Razak, however, defining the Islamic framework of the nation has been effectively delegated to the official Islamic bureaucracy, whose horizons are coloured by visions of Islamist uniformity rather than a religiously acceptable Muslim plurality.

  • Storey, Ian (2013) 'Arctic Lessons: What the South China Sea Claimants can Learn from Cooperation in the High North', ISEAS Perspective, 2013(#65) available:

- Countries with contested claims in the South China Sea have much to learn from how the Arctic states are managing their disputes and working to resolve them.
- While both the Arctic states and South China Sea claimants have pledged to resolve their disputes peacefully and in accordance with accepted principles of international law, China rejects international legal arbitration and its nine-dash line is incompatible with the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). If the South China Sea dispute is to be resolved, Beijing must bring its claims into line with UNCLOS. The circumpolar states recognize that the best way to develop hydrocarbon resources is to settle disputed maritime boundaries first.
- The prospect of conflict in both the Arctic and the South China Sea has been exaggerated, but cannot be ruled out, especially in the latter where an accidental clash could escalate into a serious crisis. Conflict management efforts by ASEAN and China have been highly disappointing. The relevant parties should consider signing Incidents at Sea (INCSEA) agreements of the kind negotiated by some Arctic countries during the Cold War to prevent maritime clashes.
- Absent a resolution of the dispute, the South China Sea claimants should emulate the Arctic states by pursuing deeper functional cooperation in areas such as joint fisheries management and search and rescue (SAR).

  • Singh, ManjetKaurMehar, Ambigapathy Pandian and SarjitKaurGurdial Singh (2013) 'International Graduate Students’ Experience in Academic Listening Practices in a Malaysian Public University: Challenges and Overcoming Measures', The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 1-12.

Abstract The number of international students choosing Malaysia as a destination to further their graduate studies is steadily growing. This phenomenon has urged researchers to look for ways to ensure that they go through a smooth academic journey. One significant area of research has focused on the challenges faced by these students in their academic listening practices, and the measures employed to overcome the challenges. The Academic Literacies Questionnaire (Manjet, Investigating the academic literacies challenges of international graduate students in Master programmes in an Institution of Higher Education in Malaysia, 2013) was administered to 131 international graduate students in 10 taught Master programmes (coursework and mixed mode) to whom English is a foreign or second language. The results revealed some challenges those students face attributable mainly to the fact that English in Malaysia is not the native or first language. The findings and results, if taken seriously by the Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia, would assist to the academic listening practices of international graduate students by the local academicians. It is hoped that the recommendations provided in this study would be a platform to ensure that international students experience a satisfying academic experience in their graduate study.

  • Simpson, Adam, and Susan Park. "The Asian Development Bank as a Global Risk Regulator in Myanmar." Third World Quarterly 34, no. 10 (2013): 1858-1871.

Abstract The Asian Development Bank (adb) is engaged in development projects throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion, although for most of the past two decades it has boycotted Myanmar (Burma) because of donor government sanctions. Despite being criticised for its neoliberal focus and its lack of transparency and accountability, the adb’s operations compare favourably to those of the Myanmar government and many transnational corporations constructing and financing projects there. This article engages with the concept of risk, which increasingly frames how development in fragile states like Myanmar is understood, to critically analyse the adb’s nascent re-engagement in Myanmar according to the risks this poses for five constituencies: the adb itself; donor states; the Myanmar government and military; private capital; and marginalised communities. While deeper engagement in Myanmar poses different risks for each group, critical analysis suggests that the adb must increase the genuine participation of civil society actors in its activities to address the most significant risks of all, those facing marginalised communities.

  • Huijsmans, Roy. "‘Doing Gendered Age’: older mothers and migrant daughters negotiating care work in rural Lao PDR and Thailand." Third World Quarterly 34, no. 10 (2013): 1896-1910.

Abstract In this article I analyse the reconfiguration of the intersection of relations of gender and age manifesting between older mothers and their migrant daughters. For this I study the negotiation of care work between differently positioned women, drawing on material from Lao PDR and Thailand. Theoretically I draw on the constructivist notion of ‘doing gendered age’, which allows us to integrate the performance of gender–age subject positions with structural changes, most notably the generational dynamics of rural transformation, an expanding neoliberal labour market and demographic transition. I conclude that gender–age subject positions hold women accountable for ‘doing gendered age’ in a particular manner. This forms an important basis for informal mechanisms of social protection. However, these subject positions are neither pre-given nor voluntary but are enacted through everyday social interaction and subject to change.

  • Yeoh, Brenda SA, Heng Leng Chee, and Grace HY Baey. "The Place of Vietnamese Marriage Migrants in Singapore: social reproduction, social ‘problems’ and social protection." Third World Quarterly 34, no. 10 (2013): 1927-1941.

While the literature on ‘global care chains’ has focused on the international transfer of paid reproductive labour in the form of domestic service and care work, a parallel trend takes the form of women marriage migrants, who perform unpaid labour to maintain households and reproduce the next generation. Drawing on our work with commercially matched Vietnamese marriage migrants in Singapore, we analyse the existing immigration–citizenship regime to examine how these marriage migrants are positioned within the family and nation-state as dependants of Singaporean men with no rights to work, residency or citizenship of their own. Incipient discussions on marriage migrants in civil society discourse have tended to follow a ‘social problems’ template, requiring legislative support and service provisioning to assist vulnerable women. We argue for the need to adopt an expansive approach to social protection issues, depending not on any one single source—the state, civil society and the family—but on government action to ensure that these complement one another and strengthen safety nets for the marriage migrant.

  • Harrison, Rachel and John Edmondson (2013) 'Special Issue: Colonial histories in South East Asia : papers in honour of Ian Brown', South East Asia Research, 21(4), 567-567.
  • Phillips, Matthew and Jonathan Saha (2013) 'Introduction: Careful interventions: Ian Brown and the study of Siam and Burma', South East Asia Research, 21(4), 569-573.
  • Warren, James A. (2013) 'Troublesome spirits: alcohol, excise and extraterritoriality in nineteenth and early twentieth century siam', South East Asia Research, 21(4), 575-599.

Although alcohol has long been a feature of Thai society, historical evidence indicates that excessive drinking on a regular basis is a relatively recent phenomenon. During the nineteenth century, there were significant quantitative and qualitative changes in both alcohol consumption and production in Siam, due largely to the introduction of new alcoholic beverages and methods of distillation by Chinese immigrants and Western entrepreneurs. As public drunkenness became more common, excessive drinking was blamed for an apparent increase in violent crime throughout the kingdom. This paper examines how the Thai government tried to manage the upsurge in drunken behaviour and the obstacles it faced in doing so. Most of these problems stemmed from the limits on the kingdom's fiscal and judicial sovereignty imposed by the unequal treaties it had signed with the Western imperial powers; as such, they are indicative of Siam's semi-colonial status during this period.

  • Sadan, Mandy (2013) 'Ethnic armies and ethnic conflict in Burma: Reconsidering the history of colonial militarization in the Kachin region of Burma during the Second World War', South East Asia Research, 21(4), 601-626.

This paper considers the recruitment of volunteer levies into British forces in northern Burma during the Second World War. Using data compiled by a local veterans' association, the paper raises questions about the supposed historical continuities that are believed to exist across military forces of the pre- and post-war periods. The data indicate that prevailing assumptions about the motivations and aspirations of local recruits should be challenged more than they have been to date. The author proposes new approaches to using quantitative data to reveal broader social trends in issues of military recruitment that could be extended into other times and places. Such methods could be particularly helpful in facilitating deeper and more nuanced demographic and social insights into Burma's history of internal militarized conflict and the ways in which recruitment practices relate to the communities from which recruits are drawn.

  • Rettig, Tobias (2013) 'Recruiting the all-female Rani of Jhansi Regiment: Subhas Chandra Bose and Dr Lakshmi Swaminadhan', South East Asia Research, 21(4), 627-638.

The recruitment of the all-female Rani of Jhansi Regiment of the Indian National Army in Japanese-controlled Singapore and Malaya, with a particular focus on the period between the first female guard of honour on 12 July 1943 through to the opening of the regiment's main camp in Singapore on 22 October 1943, has to date been insufficiently studied. Starting with the conception of the Regiment in an Axis submarine by the Indian nationalist leader Subhas Chandra Bose (1897–1945), this paper examines the ideas and figures that inspired the regiment and the role of Bose and Dr Lakshmi Swaminadhan (1914–2012) in mobilizing recruits. A division of labour can be distinguished, whereby Bose's rallies and speeches awakened a desire and commitment to join the regiment, whereas Dr Lakshmi used a door-to-door approach and access to homes to convince parents and to confirm participation. By 22 October 1943, 156 women and girls from among the Indian communities in Singapore and Malaya from a wide range of ethnic, social, religious and language backgrounds had joined the regiment that was part of Bose's plan to liberate India from British domination. Among the key sources used in this paper are Dr Lakshmi's late-1960s autobiography and the 2007 autobiographical account of one of her then 16-year-old recruits, Rasammah Naomi Navarednam (b 1927).

  • Than, Tharaphi (2013) 'The languages of Pyidawtha and the Burmese approach to national development', South East Asia Research, 21(4), 639-654.

Burma's first well known welfare plan was entitled Pyidawtha or Happy Land, and it was launched in 1952. In vernacular terms, the literal meaning of Pyidawtha is 'Prosperous Royal Country'. The government's attempt to sustain tradition and culture and to instil modern aspirations in its citizens was reflected in its choice of the word Pyidawtha. The Plan failed and its implications still overshadow the development framework of Burma. This paper discusses how the country's major decisions, including whether or not to join the Commonwealth, have been influenced by language; how the term and concept of 'development' were conceived; how the Burmese translation was coined to attract public support; and how the detailed planning was presented to the masses by the government. The paper also discusses the concerns and anxieties of the democratic government led by U Nu in introducing Burma's first major development plan to a war-torn and bitterly divided country, and why it eventually failed.

  • Saha, Jonathan (2013) 'Colonization, criminalization and complicity: policing gambling in Burma c 1880-1920', South East Asia Research, 21(4), 655-672.

Abstract: As Professor Ian Brown's recent work on the colonial prison in British Burma has shown, the proportion of the population convicted of crimes was routinely and markedly higher than in any other province of British India. Part of the explanation for the exceptionally high figures may be the colonial criminalization of practices that were previously lawful. Gambling was one such activity that the British, at least according to their rhetoric, were intent on prohibiting as part of their 'civilizing mission'. However, in practice colonial law was more ambiguous and equivocal. Government prosecutors and judges disputed the definition of gambling and struggled to differentiate it from other tolerated practices. Beyond these legal difficulties, individual British officials often found it necessary to turn a blind eye to gambling. On an everyday level, subordinate officials in the police and magistracy had an ambivalent relationship with gambling. Although empowered to suppress it, some chose to ignore its presence and others still were actively conniving with it. By studying how the British sought to control gambling in the colony at the turn of the twentieth century, this article seeks to restore the full complexity to the history of criminality in colonial Burma.

  • Phillips, Matthew (2013) 'Crafting nationalist consumption Public relations and the Thai textile movement under the People's Party, 1932-1945', South East Asia Research, 21(4), 673-691.

Abstract: Following the revolution of 1932 that ended absolute monarchy in Siam, a new government came into power that sought to legitimize its rule by encouraging mass identification with the state. Practically, the expansion of a wage economy and the development of a state-led education system were seen by government officials as central to promoting a sense of citizenship to as yet disinterested rural communities. Throughout its first decade in power, the government thus set up projects to provide such groups with skills that might contribute to their overall material advancement. Following the lead of similar endeavours, particularly in India, one of the principal ways in which it would do this was through the production and bringing to market of cotton textiles. However, with foreign imports both superior in quality and cheaper than anything produced internally, the state struggled to establish a public relations message that might convince consumers to purchase Thai-produced textiles. As a result of specific limitations rooted in Thailand's ambiguous status globally, this meant that Thai leaders struggled to replicate the success of such movements elsewhere.

  • Furuoka, F. Population and economic development in Indonesia: A revisit with new data and methods (2013) Acta Oeconomica, 63 (4), pp. 451-467.
    DOI: 10.1556/AOecon.63.2013.4.3

The long-term relationship between population and economic development is an important research topic in development economics. However, after several decades of research, no consensus has been reached as to whether the relationship is positive or negative. This paper chose Indonesia as a case study and employed both a linear cointegration test and a nonlinear cointegration test to examine the relationship between population and income. The tests detected a long-run equilibrium relationship between population and real per capita income in Indonesia. Also, the causality test indicated that there existed a unidirectional causality from Indonesia's population expansion to the country's economic growth, but not vice versa. These results indicate a population-driven economic development in Indonesia. In other words, Indonesia could represent a textbook case of population-induced development where a rapid population growth stimulates economic development.

  • Mostafanezhad, M. Returning the gaze: Exploring the possibility for dialogical tourism in northern Thailand
    (2013) Anatolia, 24 (3), pp.489-492.
    DOI: 10.1080/13032917.2013.802703

This research note explores the possibility for a more mutually beneficial encounter between “Hill Tribe** trekking tourists in northern Thailand and host community members through “dialogical tourism” or tourism that facilitates a sincere communicative exchange. “Hill Tribe*' trekking is a type of tourism where tourists trek in the highlands for 1 -14 days and spend the night with ethnic minority groups. These groups are collectively known in international popular culture as “Hill Tribes.*' Although this term is commonly used by tourists and tour operators, it is also a derogatory term that homogenizes more than 10 cultural heterogeneous cthnic groups that have traditionally been marginalized in low land Thai society (Cohen. 2001). The kind of tourists who participate in these treks may be described as a cultural, backpacker, or eco-tourist. or a combination of all three. They also lend to be international tourists between 20 and 35 years of age.

  • Kuo, H.-I., Liu, K.E., Chen, C.-C. Modeling Japanese Tourism Demand for Asian Destinations: A Dynamic AIDS Approach (2014) Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19 (1), pp. 86-102.
    DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2012.726926

This paper investigates the expenditure allocation of Japanese international tourism in its five major Asian destinations, China, Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The dynamic of linear approximation the almost ideal demand system is used to determine the long-run equilibrium while the short-run dynamics are represented by an error correction mechanism. The empirical results indicate that the changes in market shares of Japanese outbound tourism are significantly influenced by the changes in tourists' expenditure, rather than the changes in relative tourism prices. The results show that Japan expenditure rises, the market share of Taiwan and Thailand declines, while Korea benefits. In addition, price competitiveness is important for Japanese demand for Korea, but is relatively unimportant for the other destinations. © 2013 © 2013 Asia Pacific Tourism Association.

  • Hoffstaedter, G. Islam and freedom of religion: Anthropology, theology and clashes of universalisms in contemporary Malaysia (2013) Australian Journal of Anthropology, 24 (3), pp. 270-289.
    DOI: 10.1111/taja.12051

In 2006 a forum to discuss Article 11 of the Malaysian constitution on religious freedom sparked a major and unexpected pushback. Many Muslim and Malay NGOs and concerned citizens argued that they were defending Islam from the onslaught of liberalising forces in Malaysia. The clash between what could be termed liberal human rights discourses and/or reformist Islam and reactionary Islam is also one about Islamic theology in Malaysia. It is an example of how theology can be internally divisive and presents a problematic case study for an anthropological encounter and engagement with multiple theologies, debates about history and the anthropological project. This article charts one path for the encounter between an anthropologist and his ethnographic other that aims to understand these diverse perspectives and also seeks to understand both the project of writing an anthropology of Islam that incorporates Islamic theology and Muslims' lifeworlds that form the basis for it. © 2013 Australian Anthropological Society.

  • Tan, C. For group, (f)or self: communitarianism, Confucianism and values education in Singapore (2013) Curriculum Journal, 24 (4), pp. 478-493.
    DOI: 10.1080/09585176.2012.744329

Values education in Asian societies is commonly underpinned by an ideology of communitarianism that seeks to promote the needs and interests of 'others' over the 'self'. An example of an Asian country that promotes communitarian values through its values education curriculum is Singapore. By reviewing the moral and citizenship education curricula in Singapore, the present article points out that the accent is on 'others' rather than the 'self'. Noting that communitarianism has often been linked to Confucian values in Asian societies, this article offers a Confucian viewpoint of the self and moral self-cultivation. It further argues for a form of values education that balances the 'self' with 'others' through active learning, self-reflection and self-evaluation. The Singapore experience provides a useful case study on the influence of communitarianism and the potential of Confucianism on values education in an Asian context. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • Warrier, S., Ebbeck, M. Children's rights: Television programmes aired in Singapore (2014) Early Child Development and Care, 184 (1), pp. 138-148.
    DOI: 10.1080/03004430.2013. 773991

This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its obligations in regard to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. News and advertisements aired on Channel 5 during primetime (between 7 pm and 10 pm) were recorded over a six-month period, and those featuring or related to children were analysed for the study. The samples were categorised and subcategorised based on the principles of the Convention (UNICEF, (2011a, June 2). Convention on the rights of the child. Rights Under the Convention on the Rights of the Child): Participation, Protection, Development, and Survival. A fifth category, not under United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child-Object, was devised by the researchers. The results of this study have shown that the representation of children on television in Singapore is, in part, a reflection of how Singaporean society views children. Analyses of the media content indicated that protection and development of children was Singapore's top priority. Despite the fact that children were considered to need adult protection there was no reference to the Convention. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  • Escolar Chua, R.L., de Guzman, A.B. Effects of Third Age Learning Programs on the Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Depression Level among a Select Group of Community Dwelling Filipino Elderly (2014) Educational Gerontology, 40 (2), pp. 77-90.
    DOI: 10.1080/03601277.2012.701157

With the growing number of older adults becoming a global concern, many countries have focused on education as a means of promoting successful aging. Although third age learning is gaining substantial ground in other countries, it is not well-established in the Philippines. The overall intent of this experimental study was to assess the effectiveness of community-based third age learning programs on the life satisfaction, self-esteem, and level of depression of a select group of Filipino elderly in a community setting. A pre- posttest study design was used on 40 community dwelling Filipino elderly who were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Both groups accomplished the Life Satisfaction Index for the Third Age Short Form (LSITA-SF), Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES), and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The experimental group was exposed to a four-month program consisting of wellness, physical fitness, and livelihood training activities facilitated by volunteer faculty from a local university; the control group received no intervention. The results of t tests showed statistically significant group differences between the experimental and control group, with the former posting higher life satisfaction, self-esteem, and lower depression level compared to the control group. Findings of this study add to the knowledge base that active participation in third age learning programs-which include opportunities for physical activity, cognitive learning, recreation, and social interaction-can improve the psychological and psychosocial health of an older adult. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • Gyntelberg, J., Loretan, M., Subhanij, T., Chan, E. Exchange rate fluctuations and international portfolio rebalancing (2014) Emerging Markets Review, 18, pp. 34-44.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ememar.2013.11.004

We present empirical evidence for several hypotheses of how exchange rates are affected by investors' cross-border equity portfolio rebalancing decisions. Our results are based on comprehensive, daily-frequency datasets of foreign exchange market transactions and equity market capital flows undertaken by nonresident investors in Thailand in 2005 and 2006. We find that net purchases of Thai equities by nonresident investors systematically lead to an appreciation of the Thai baht. Furthermore, higher returns on Thai equities relative to those on a reference market are associated with subsequent sales of Thai equities by foreign investors as well as a depreciation of the Thai baht, although the latter effect is not statistically significant. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  • Yea, S. Mobilising the child victim: The localisation of human trafficking in singapore through global activism (2013) Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 31 (6), pp. 988-1003.
    DOI: 10.1068/d15411

In this paper I examine the local mobilisation of the dominant global framing of the problem of human trafficking through 'the female child victim' in child sex trafficking advocacy campaigns. The child victim is a symbolic and emotive frame embodied in the Third World female child and enacted through her helplessness and experiences of extreme violence and (sexual) abuse in trafficking situations across diverse contexts globally. I use The Body Shop's (TBS's) 2009-12 global campaign against child sex trafficking as my site for discussion of the way frames in global human rights activism move into local contexts, often coming to define the ways contemporary human rights problems are understood and reproduced locally. I draw on ethnographic research on human trafficking in Singapore to explore the ways in which the child victim frame is mobilised in a specific locale through the involvement of a local nongovernmental organisation and university student actors as part of TBS's campaign strategy. Although recent geographical scholarship on social movements has embraced a networked approach, I argue for heightened attention to the geographies of scaled (re)iteration, or local mobilisation that occurs as transnational activism connects with particular places. The role of framing in embedding global human rights issues locally in transnational activism is central to this process.

  • Partiwi, S.G., Suwignjo, P., Eriyatno, Fauzi, A.M., Setyowati, K. Design of key performance indicators for a comprehensive performance in marine agro-industrial clusters: A case study in Indonesia (2014) International Journal of Business Performance Management, 15 (1), pp. 72-86.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBPM.2014.057881

The competitiveness of marine agro-industry cluster depends on how the performance of this industry was conducted comprehensively. However, limited studies investigate the performance criteria at the cluster level. This study designs the comprehensive performance criteria of clusters by determining criteria and key performance indicators (KPIs) using an expert system. Expert elicitation judgement was conducted through brainstorming and expert questionnaire. In addition, Delphi methods and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) were used for quantitative analysis. The criteria and sub criteria were elaborated from various aspects of agro-industry clusters, which include environment, social, economic and internal business process. The selected criteria were determined based on their importance of these criteria to both aspects and actors of marine agro-industry clusters. These criteria were further derived to obtain comprehensive performance measures of marine agro-industry clusters. KPIs were selected from these performance measures using Electre II method. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • Laiprakobsup, T. Tax abandonment, political regime type and rice export growth in Thailand (2013) International Journal of Civic, Political, and Community Studies, 10 (3), pp. 39-50.

Do tax abandonment and political systems encourage the growth of agricultural exports? This paper examines whether and how a shift in trade policy and political regime type impacts exports of agricultural commodities. We argue that the abandonment of export taxes and a democratic regime have a positive impact on exports of agricultural commodities. When the government abolishes taxes imposed on private exporters and when a country becomes more democratic, exporters have more incentive to export more commodities. Using data regarding Thailand's rice exports from 1979-1989, we find that when the government abolished three rice export taxes, rice exports grew. We also find that democratic regimes are likely to lead to growth in rice exports. The results indicate that trade liberalisation and democratic system are likely to encourage the growth of agricultural exports.

  • Sugiri, A., Nuraini, N. Towards equity-based regional development: Addressing spatial inequality in the blitar region (2013) International Journal of Civic, Political, and Community Studies, 10 (3), pp. 91-109.

Spatial inequality can be defined as disparities among spatial units of a region that can easily be perceived by people, e.g. some spatial units can provide proper and affordable public facilities and infrastructure while some others cannot. This phenomenon has long been there in the Blitar Region, Indonesia, where the north part of it is seen by people as more developed than the south part. Spatial inequality matters because, firstly, it could be caused by equity failures and secondly, this may worsen the imbalance spatial interactions, which can further cause problems like unoptimum economic growth, inequality of welfare, and even unsustainability. It is unfortunate that the inverted U-shape rule of spatial inequality as hypothesised by many seems inapplicable here. This paper is based on research answering the problem of what factors have been there and how they work to result in the spatial inequality of the Blitar Region. A set of propositions was developed from literature discussions and was then confirmed in the case of the Blitar Region, comprising Blitar City and Blitar Regency administratively. The quantitative approach is utilised in this research, due to the need to understand the general characteristics of spatial inequality in the Blitar Region. The main findings confirm that it is inequity, especially in the distribution of development benefits, that matters and that the inverted U-shape rule needs equity to be ensured to work. Essential measures needed to alleviate the inequity are recommended.

  • Lo, M.-C., Ramayah, T., Isa, A.H.M., Jais, M. Leadership styles and financial services performance (2013) International Journal of Management Practice, 6 (4), pp. 299-319.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMP.2013.057821

This paper seeks to explore the relationship between leadership practices and organisational performance of financial leaders in Malaysia. It aims to investigate the existence of contemporary leadership styles such as transformational, transactional and leader-member exchange (LMX) in enhancing organisational performance particularly in financial services sector. Data was collected from financial services companies, comprising commercial banks, investment banks, unit trust management companies and insurance companies. SmartPLS 2.0 (M3) was applied to test the hypotheses that comprised both transformational and transactional leadership styles and also LMX on organisational performance and subsequently bootstrapping was conducted to investigate the standard error of the estimate and t-values. This research highlights the importance of leadership awareness as well as recognition of LMX as a valuable approach in achieving a better organisational performance. This study attempts to blend various leadership styles and organisational performance of financial services sector in Malaysia. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • Ebrahim, M.S., Girma, S., Shah, M.E., Williams, J. Dynamic capital structure and political patronage: The case of Malaysia (2014) International Review of Financial Analysis, 31, pp. 117-128.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.irfa.2013.11.004

This paper investigates the effect of political patronage on firms' capital structure. The evidence is from Malaysia, a country characterised by relationship-capitalism, and covers 1988 to 2009. Using a system GMM estimator we find firms set leverage targets and adjust towards them following deviations at the rate of 28% per annum. Next, we construct a natural experiment and use a difference-in-differences model to investigate if the strategic financing decisions of politically patronised firms differ from non-connected firms after an exogenous shock caused by the 1997 Asian crisis. Our results unambiguously demonstrate a significant difference in the capital structure of patronised firms relative to non-connected firms following the exogenous shock but only for the crisis period 1998-2001. After 2002 the capital structures of patronised and non-connected firms are statistically equivalent. © 2013.

  • Atkinson, C.L. The foundation and development of environmental governance in Singapore (2013) Journal of Asian Public Policy, 6 (3), pp. 231-246.
    DOI: 10.1080/17516234.2013.850218

Singapore is a study in consistency, and the impact of cultural context on the nation's government and policy is profound. While the interaction of politics, administration, and Asian values has been discussed generally in the literature, the framework of environmental protection in the Singapore experience has not been fully examined in the light of the nation's growth and Confucian values. This article considers Singapore's cultural background, highlighting its Confucianist system, and reviews its environmental policy development in the light of what is essentially a national-level application of the ethical-philosophical system. © 2013 © Taylor & Francis.

  • Goto, K., Endo, T. Upgrading, Relocating, Informalising? Local Strategies in the Era of Globalisation: The Thai Garment Industry (2014) Journal of Contemporary Asia, 44 (1), pp. 1-18.
    DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2013.794365

The garment industry was once the leading manufacturing-based export sector of Thailand. While its international competitiveness has been diminishing since the 1990s primarily due to increases in wage levels, it nevertheless remains an important source of income for a large number of workers. Given this fact, we look at what survival strategies garment suppliers have adopted. In particular, this paper will examine the Thai garment industry from a global value chains perspective, and determine whether upgrading in process, products or functions has occurred. In this context, the paper shows that the Thai garment industry has been stagnating in terms of process and product upgrading. This, in turn, has induced suppliers to move to rural areas where cheaper labour, including migrant labour, is more readily available. We attempt to provide a more evidence-based account of this industrial relocation using unpublished data. Functional upgrading in more locally oriented production networks has occurred; however, competition in such functions has also increased, leading to price-based competition and the erosion of economic rents of network co-ordinators. The paper further argues that informalisation is becoming more common in production and employment relationships, and concludes that such strategies may not be viable in the long run. © 2013 © Journal of Contemporary Asia.

  • London, J.D. Welfare Regimes in China and Vietnam (2014) Journal of Contemporary Asia, 44 (1), pp. 84-107.
    DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2013.822988

This essay investigates how the degeneration of state socialist regimes and the transition to market-Leninist political economies in China and Vietnam have shaped institutional arrangements governing welfare and its stratification effects. Engaging recent theoretical literature one welfare regimes, the article explores how the evolution of specific combinations of political and economic institutions in China and Vietnam has affected the production and reproduction of welfare and stratification. The common assumption that welfare regimes reflect the structured interests of dominant political and economic actors and thus serve to reproduce that regime is found to invite an excessively static perspective. Instead this essay argues that welfare regimes and stratification in contemporary China and Vietnam require an appreciation of their properties under state-socialism and how specific paths of extrication affected their degeneration and subsequent development under a new form of political economy. The essay also probes the significance of observed differences in China and Vietnam's political structure in light of suggestions that Vietnam's more pluralistic political system has made its welfare regime more redistributive than China's. An alternative perspective suggests China's wealth obviates the significance of such differences. © 2013 © Journal of Contemporary Asia.

  • Devadason, E.S., Meng, C.W. Policies and Laws Regulating Migrant Workers in Malaysia: A Critical Appraisal (2014) Journal of Contemporary Asia, 44 (1), pp. 19-35.
    DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2013.826420

This paper reviews policies and laws governing migrant inflows and their presence in the Malaysian economy. This study finds that policy failures are basically built on the ad hoc management of in-migration, lack of enforcement of existing regulations and abusive practices of various stakeholders. Likewise, work and provision of basic rights for migrants under specific laws are found to be somewhat discriminatory and arbitrary. Hence, the immediate challenge for policy makers is to ensure effective management of migrant workers, beginning with a clear policy on recruitment, placement, monitoring and finally the return of migrant workers to their homeland. Furthermore, amendments to specific laws are needed to ensure that migrant workers are accorded equal labour standards and basic rights as those of locals. © 2013 © Journal of Contemporary Asia.

  • Hadiz, V.R. A New Islamic Populism and the Contradictions of Development (2014) Journal of Contemporary Asia, 44 (1), pp. 125-143.
    DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2013.832790

A new form of Islamic populism has evolved in many parts of the Muslim world. Its emergence is part of the more universal phenomenon of populist responses to the contradictions of globalised capitalism. It is also a consequence of the outcomes of Cold War-era social conflicts and of social-structural transformations in Muslim societies over the last half-century. Specifically, it articulates the rising ambitions and growing frustrations of urban middle classes across the Muslim world, the anxieties of growing urban poor populations and relatively peripheralised sections of the bourgeoisie. Thus representing cross-class coalitions, the New Islamic Populism aims to provide access to power and tangible resources to an ummah conceived to be both downtrodden and homogeneous, though in actuality, increasingly differentiated. This is demonstrated through a discussion of Indonesia, Egypt and Turkey. The article is intended to provide an alternative to analyses that have tended to dominate discussions of Islamic politics over the last decade. These include analyses that emphasise radical ideas transmitted by shadowy transnational networks that threaten the global secular order and those that posit a strong relationship between political moderation and democratic practice but tend to overlook the structural underpinnings of Islamic politics. © 2013 © Journal of Contemporary Asia.

  • Gordon, A. Reverse Flow Foreign Investment: Colonial Indonesia's Investment in Metropolitan Countries (2014) Journal of Contemporary Asia, 44 (1), pp. 108-124.
    DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2013.839199

Although this paper challenges the standard viewpoint that foreign direct investment actually occurred in colonial times it also finds parallels with today's international finance. Evidence shows that the reverse flow of funds was infinitely much greater than possible foreign investment for at least one colony, the Netherlands East Indies (colonial Indonesia). We calculate for the late colonial period (1880-1939) out of its total colonial surplus at least US$430 billion in today's terms (about three-quarters of the total) was available for investment. This was far in excess of actual investment. Less than one-third of the available for investment went to colonial Indonesia and a further one-third was invested in other countries. The remainder is attributed to investment in the Netherlands (mainly portfolio), investment by non-Dutch corporations and to some statistical errors and omissions. Furthermore, we indicate their actual vital function within the global economic and financial organisation of the Netherlands in late colonial times. The probability of similar occurrences today is raised. © 2013 © Journal of Contemporary Asia.

  • Jones, L. The Political Economy of Myanmar's Transition (2014) Journal of Contemporary Asia, 44 (1), pp. 144-170.
    DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2013.764143

Since holding elections in 2010, Myanmar has transitioned from a direct military dictatorship to a formally democratic system and has embarked on a period of rapid economic reform. After two decades of military rule, the pace of change has startled almost everyone and led to a great deal of cautious optimism. To make sense of the transition and assess the case for optimism, this article explores the political economy of Myanmar's dual transition from state socialism to capitalism and from dictatorship to democracy. It analyses changes within Myanmar society from a critical political economy perspective in order to both situate these developments within broader regional trends and to evaluate the country's current trajectory. In particular, the emergence of state-mediated capitalism and politico-business complexes in Myanmar's borderlands are emphasised. These dynamics, which have empowered a narrow oligarchy, are less likely to be undone by the reform process than to fundamentally shape the contours of reform. Consequently, Myanmar's future may not be unlike those of other Southeast Asian states that have experienced similar developmental trajectories. © 2013 © Journal of Contemporary Asia.

  • Kapur, A. AsianValues v.the paper tiger: Dismantling the threat to asian values posed by the international criminal court (2013) Journal of International Criminal Justice, 11 (5), pp. 1059-1090.
    DOI: 10.1093/jicj/mqt067

In a decade of shifting norms and changing practices in international criminal law, the principle of complementarity has emerged as the primary, but as-yet incompletely defined, mechanism of the International Criminal Court (ICC) to coax states towards enforcing individual accountability for international crimes. By enabling the ICC to decide whether specific cases are admissible, and whether to investigate and prosecute individuals of a state potentially without that state's consent, complementarity is also the largest stumbling block forAsian states' participation in the ICC. In particular, member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), where the 'Asian values'of non-interference in domestic affairs and deference to state sovereignty are the foundation of inter-state relations, take issue with the competence of the ICC. This article analyses the extent to which such Asian values are a legitimate basis for ASEAN resistance to the ICC treaty regime in the context of the design and emerging practice of the ICC concerning complementarity and referral mechanisms. It suggests that, both in substance and procedurally, the ICC regime may represent less of a threat than anticipated to these Asian values, and that notwithstanding non-ratification, continued engagement between the ICC and ASEAN non-states parties may gradually promote the internalization of norms consistent with the ICC's aims. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  • Sperfeldt, C. From the Margins of Internationalized Criminal Justice: Lessons Learned at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (2013) Journal of International Criminal Justice, 11 (5), pp. 1111-1137.
    DOI: 10.1093/jicj/mqt069

The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) is the second internationalized criminal justice process in southeast Asia after Timor Leste. Sharing many interesting features with the International Criminal Court (ICC), the ECCC combines extensive victim participation with a reparations mandate. This article discusses the ECCC experience thus far and identifies some preliminary lessons for both the ICC and the Asia-Pacific region in four areas that are often left at the margins of internationalized criminal justice processes: (i) an ECCC outreach programme benefiting from the Court's in-country location and support from local NGOs; (ii) the gradual learning curve involved with managing large scale victim participation, with 8,000 victims applying to participate in Case 002; (iii) challenges for implementing the court's collective reparations mandate; and (iv) the potential legacy of the ECCC, being of particular relevance for Cambodia as one of the few countries in the region that ratified the ICC Statute. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  • Hoon, C.-Y. Multicultural citizenship education in Indonesia: The case of a Chinese Christian school (2013) Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 44 (3), pp. 490-510.
    DOI: 10.1017/S0022463413000349

This study investigates how multicultural citizenship education is taught in a Chinese Christian school in Jakarta, where multiculturalism is not a natural experience. Schoolyard ethnographic research was deployed to explore the reality of a 'double minority' - Chinese Christians - and how the citizenship of this marginal group is constructed and contested in national, school, and familial discourses. The article argues that it is necessary for schools to actively implement multicultural citizenship education in order to create a new generation of young adults who are empowered, tolerant, active, participatory citizens of Indonesia. As schools are a microcosm of the nation-state, successful multicultural citizenship education can have real societal implications for it has the potential to render the idealism enshrined in the national motto of 'Unity in Diversity' a lived reality. Copyright © 2013 The National University of Singapore.

  • Aso, M. Patriotic hygiene: Tracing new places of knowledge production about malaria in Vietnam, 1919-75 (2013) Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 44 (3), pp. 423-443.
    DOI: 10.1017/S0022463413000313

This article examines knowledge production about malaria in colonial and postcolonial Vietnam. During the 1920s and 1930s, medical doctors cooperated with plantation managers in order to develop industrial hygiene techniques consisting of environmental modification and quinine use. By the 1930s, changing motivations, in particular racial hygiene and patriotism, drove malaria control efforts. The wartime pressures to control malaria between the 1940s and 1975 further encouraged patriotic hygiene. This history of malaria science in Vietnam highlights the tension between change and continuity and shows the importance of place in the conjunction of scientific knowledge production and nation-building projects. Copyright © 2013 The National University of Singapore.

  • Suwignyo, A. The Great Depression and the changing trajectory of public education policy in Indonesia, 1930-42 (2013) Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 44 (3), pp. 465-489.
    DOI: 10.1017/S0022463413000337

From the turn of the century up until the 1930s, public education under Dutch rule in Indonesia developed both quantitatively and qualitatively, but this expansion was interrupted, and even reversed, by the onset of the Great Depression. Focusing on schoolteachers in particular, this essay examines the trajectory of education policies in colonial Indonesia in response to the crisis, from the initial measures, to partial recovery in the mid-1930s, up to the Japanese invasion of 1942. The crisis ushered in the policy of indigenisation, which saw large-scale education reorganisation, including the substitution of European teachers with much lower paid Indonesians. Indigenisation was also a political response to the spreading of nationalist ideals through the growing number of independent schools run by Taman Siswa and the Muhammadiyah. Hence, the intention was also to transform Indonesian teachers into cultural agents who would propagate a government-formulated concept of cultural identity among their own community. However, indigenisation contributed to the gradual delegitimisation of colonial authority through the exodus of well-educated Indonesians who had been intended as docile imperial subjects. Copyright © 2013 The National University of Singapore.

  • Heng, D. State formation and the evolution of naval strategies in the Melaka Straits, c. 500-1500 CE (2013) Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 44 (3), pp. 380-399.
    DOI: 10.1017/S0022463413000362

The Strait of Melaka and connected waterways have been critical to, and directly affected, the formation of littoral states, societies and economies in eastern Sumatra, the Riau Islands, the Malay Peninsula, and Singapore. The history and nature of statehood in the region is interrelated to the way in which naval capabilities evolved, but, as argued in this article, perhaps not in the straightforward fashion often assumed. Naval capabilities and strategies evolved in tandem with state policy to adapt to changes in the wider Asian maritime political economy which was dominated at various times by China and India. This article examines the factors that affected maritime policy in the Melaka Straits c. 500 to 1500 CE, and the extent to which these furthered the viability of the mainly Malay port-polities, and in particular the regional hegemonic state of Srivijaya in eastern Sumatra. The study utilises textual records, epigraphic materials, and literature to reconstruct a more nuanced picture of maritime states and naval power in premodern Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2013 The National University of Singapore.

  • Nourse, J.W. The meaning of dukun and allure of Sufi healers: How Persian cosmopolitans transformed Malay-Indonesian history (2013) Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 44 (3), pp. 400-422.
    DOI: 10.1017/S0022463413000325

For contemporary Malay/Indonesian speakers, dukun signifies an indigenous healer. Etymologically, however, the word dukun is not native to Malay/Indonesian. Some say dukun is Arabic, but this article claims it is more Persian than Arabic. When fifteenth-century Persian settlers brought the proto-form of the word dukun to the Malay Archipelago, they also brought cosmopolitan notions of Sufism, faith and healing. Eventually orthodox Arab immigrants and Europeans denigrated Sufi healers as 'indigenous'. Dukun became a rhetorical foil demonstrating how superb Western physicians or orthodox Arabs were by comparison. Gradually, the dukun's reputation became intertwined with negative attitudes about 'indigenous' practices. Copyright © 2013 The National University of Singapore.

  • Kaur, S., Sandhu, M.S. Internationalisation of born global firms: Evidence from Malaysia (2014) Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 19 (1), pp. 101-136.
    DOI: 10.1080/13547860.2013.818426

The purpose of this study is to identify the key factors that lead to early internationalisation of young small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a developing country context and to examine the internationalisation path of born global firms in terms of initial and subsequent mode-of-entry decisions. This study analyses 10 born global SMEs using a multiple-case-study method. Multiple sources of data are used, including semi-structured in-depth interviews, a questionnaire and secondary data. It is found that factors that influence born global internationalisation are made up of the interplay of three major factors, namely the individual founder/manager specific characteristics, firm-specific resources and the external environment. The most important factor that emerged was the entrepreneurial orientation of founders/managers. This study also found that born global firms do not follow a stepwise-entry strategy. Due to the largely qualitative nature of the study, the findings cannot be statistically generalised to other similar contexts. Nonetheless, theoretical generalisation is possible. An integrated framework of the factors that drive born global internationalisation is presented, together with an overview of born-global-entry strategies. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  • Sohn, K. A note on the effects of education on youth smoking in a developing country (2014) Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 19 (1), pp. 66-73.
    DOI: 10.1080/13547860.2013.803845

This paper investigates smoking behavior among youths and its relationship with education, cognitive skills, risk aversion and patience, using the Indonesian Family Life Survey. The results suggest that receiving an education above junior high school level is associated with a lower probability and intensity of smoking. Moreover, the effects of education remain robust even when variables that are considered to mediate the relationship between education and smoking - cognitive skills, risk aversion and patience - are controlled for. In spite of the difference between the smoking environment in Indonesia and that of developed countries, most results are consistent with those generally found in developed countries. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  • Sufian, F., Habibullah, M.S. The impact of forced mergers and acquisitions on banks' total factor productivity: Empirical evidence from Malaysia (2014) Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 19 (1), pp. 151-185.
    DOI: 10.1080/13547860.2013.818428

In the present paper, we employ alternative techniques to examine the impact of mergers and acquisitions on the total factor productivity of Malaysian banks. These alternative techniques extend from the use of non-parametric 'frontier'-oriented Malmquist productivity index (MPI) and central tendency ordinary least square (OLS) and fixed effects (FE) panel regression methods. We find that Malaysian banks have exhibited a higher mean total factor productivity level during the post-merger period. The results from the multivariate regression analysis suggest that income diversification and operating expenses are positively and significantly related to Malaysian banks' total factor productivity, while credit risk and inflation exhibit a negative relationship. The empirical findings indicate that the acquiring banks have been relatively more productive compared to the target banks and banks in the control group. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  • Asadi-Shekari, Z., Moeinaddini, M., Zaly Shah, M. A pedestrian level of service method for evaluating and promoting walking facilities on campus streets (2014) Land Use Policy, 38, pp. 175-193.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.11.007

Modern universities seek policies to sustain the streets on their campuses by making campus streets pedestrian-friendly. To maintain inclusive streets, campus designers and planners should consider all users. Currently, there are efforts to evaluate street conditions for pedestrians. However, a limited range of pedestrian facilities and abilities make the results of previous studies insufficient to evaluate and promote inclusive walking facilities. This study attempts to create a foundation for evaluating and improving campus streets for pedestrians. This research presents pedestrian design indicators based on different guidelines that consider various pedestrian needs. This paper also introduces the pedestrian level of service (PLOS) for campuses, which is a measure to evaluate campus street facilities and infrastructure for pedestrians. An analytical point system comparing existing pedestrian facilities to a standard is proposed to estimate this PLOS. Although this method can be utilized on campuses around the world, this research uses it to assess streets on the campus of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). This method can identify existing street problems for pedestrians and can be used to propose improvements to existing campus streets. Since this study tries to serve all requirements of pedestrians, specifically vulnerable users whether old or disabled, designers have room to implement accessible routes for pedestrians in campus streets. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • Gandana, I., Parr, G. Professional identity, curriculum and teaching Intercultural Communication: An Indonesian case study (2013) Language, Culture and Curriculum, 26 (3), pp. 229- 246.
    DOI: 10.1080/07908318.2013.833620

Influenced by contemporary research into the interconnectedness of language and culture, many Indonesian teacher education courses have introduced 'new' subjects such as Intercultural Communication and Cross-Cultural Understanding, hoping to unsettle their students' traditional assumptions that language is merely a neutral medium for expressing or disseminating ideas or culture. And yet the extent to which such subjects might impact upon these students' understandings and beliefs is contingent upon the particular understandings and beliefs, and the 'identity work', of the lecturers and tutors who teach in those subjects. This qualitative case study focuses on one teacher educator's beliefs about and understandings of English language and culture, in order to tease out what perspectives on Intercultural Communication are being constructed through the teaching and learning in that subject. Initial findings suggest some fundamental tensions and inconsistencies in the perspectives on language and culture being taught through this particular subject. Such tensions and contradictions are invariably part of all teachers' identity work, but they limit the potential for significant real change in student learning despite the apparent change in the curriculum being implemented. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  • Stanford, R.J., Wiryawan, B., Bengen, D.G., Febriamansyah, R., Haluan, J. Improving livelihoods in fishing communities of West Sumatra: More than just boats and machines (2014) Marine Policy, 45, pp. 16-25.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.11.013


Despite a raft of livelihood programs designed to help Indonesian small-scale fishers there are concerns that the needs of the poor are still not being addressed. This study examines this concern through a two-pronged approach. Firstly, through a broad-scale series of interviews with fishers, community leaders and government employees in 25 fishing villages in the province of West Sumatra to identify which sectors of the fishing industry the poor operate in and the types of livelihood initiatives targeted at helping them. Secondly, by using three case studies of livelihood development projects and identifying the social, economic and institutional lessons learned that point both to best and worst practice. Three groups of poor fishers were identified; a large group of non-boat owning "labourers", a group of "small-scale boat owners" and a small group of "processors and sellers". Empowerment programs by the Department for Fisheries between 2005 and 2009 emphasised improving physical capital through providing fishing gear, motorisation and processing equipment. These initiatives could potentially help small-boat owners but would not benefit non-boat owning labourers. The new livelihood improvement programme GPEMP had non-fishing alternative livelihoods that could help labourers, but still demonstrated an ongoing bias towards physical capital interventions. The three case studies demonstrated that aspects of leadership, trust, advocacy, administration, accountability and ongoing institutional support are key elements of empowering coastal communities towards livelihood improvement. Human and social capital components need prioritisation in future poverty alleviation policy and programs in Indonesia, particularly for the large marginalised group of labourers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • Muallil, R.N., Mamauag, S.S., Cabral, R.B., Celeste-Dizon, E.O., Aliño, P.M. Status, trends and challenges in the sustainability of small-scale fisheries in the Philippines: Insights from FISHDA (Fishing Industries' Support in Handling Decisions Application) model (2014) Marine Policy, 44, pp. 212-221.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.08.026

Managing small-scale fisheries in a developing country like the Philippines is very challenging because of high pressures from expanding fishing population, poverty and lack of alternative options. Thus, resource-focused fisheries management initiatives such as marine protected area (MPA) establishment will likely result in further marginalization of the poor fishers which could pose more serious problems in coastal communities. In this study, the status of small-scale fisheries in 44 coastal towns in the Philippines was assessed using FISHDA (Fishing Industries' Support in Handling Decisions Application), a simple decision support tool which requires minimal or easily-generated data. Results showed that 68% (30 out of 44) of the studied towns have unsustainable fisheries unless 58% of their fishing grounds are protected from all fishing activities. Alternatively, 53% of the active fishers in towns with unsustainable fisheries must totally stop fishing to avert fishery collapse. Alarming as it may sound, this is still an underestimate as catches incurred by the highly efficient and destructive illegal fishing activities such as blast, poison and large-scale fishing, which are reported to be still rampant in many coastal areas in the Philippines, were not accounted for in this study. This study demonstrated that MPAs alone may not be enough to avert fishery collapse even if MPA size is increased from the current 3% to 15% of the municipal waters, i.e. up to 15. km from the shore, as required by the Philippine law. Various challenges confronting the fishery and important recommendations to address them are further discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • Teh, L.S.L., Teh, L.C.L., Rashid Sumaila, U. Time preference of small-scale fishers in open access and traditionally managed reef fisheries (2014) Marine Policy, 44, pp. 222-231.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.08.028

Individuals with high discount rates are likely not partial to conservation because they are unwilling to sacrifice short term benefits for potentially higher gains in the future. Many reef fisheries worldwide are open access, and fishers under open access systems are theorized to discount the future at an infinite rate. In contrast, fishers in a customary managed fishery can be expected to be more long term oriented, and thus possibly have lower discount rates. The present study tests this hypothesis by eliciting the discount rates of fishers in an open access small-scale reef fishery, and compares these rates to those of fishers in a customary managed reef fishery. Results indicate that fishers in both open access and traditionally managed reef fisheries have high annual discount rates that are on average over 200%. Contrary to expectations, fishers under an open access system are not associated with higher discount rates compared to customary management. It also appears that a larger proportion of open access fishers are more long-term oriented than those in the customary managed fishery, which is encouraging for the future conservation and sustainability of open access fisheries resources. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • Abdul Rahman, N. Multilateralism in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore (2014) Marine Policy, 44, pp. 232-238.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.08.030

This paper analyzes International Maritime Organization (IMO) involvement in maritime cooperation regime in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore through multilateralism. It begins by introducing the maritime cooperation regime prior to 2001, which was mainly trilateral in nature through Tripartite Technical Expert Group on the Safety of Navigation (TTEG). Although TTEG managed to increase the level of safety of navigation in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore through the implementation of the Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS) in 1981 and Mandatory Ship Reporting System (STRAITREP) in 1998, such cooperation was beset by financial strain and conflict of interests. Subsequently, there was a change in the cooperation regime after 9/11 incident. This paper identifies that the change was contributed by the IMO through a methodology called multilateralism. Three important principles were adopted by IMO in implementing multilateralism in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore, namely generalized principles of conduct (respect for sovereignty and compliance with burden sharing principle under Article 43 of UNCLOS 1982), diffuse reciprocity, and indivisibility. This paper concludes that multilateralism by IMO has transformed trilateral cooperation into multilateral cooperation in the Straits of Malacca, combining state actors (littoral states and user states) and non-state actors (non-governmental organizations and international shipping industries). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • Pham, T.D.T., Huang, H.-W., Chuang, C.-T. Finding a balance between economic performance and capacity efficiency for sustainable fisheries: Case of the Da Nang gillnet fishery, Vietnam (2014) Marine Policy, 44, pp. 287-294.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.09.021

Marine capture fisheries in Vietnam are small-scale, multi-species, multi-gear, and open access regime. Under numerous governmental promotion programs, Vietnamese fishing fleets have expanded at an uncontrollable rate. This research analyzes the economic performance and capacity efficiency of the Da Nang gillnet fishery. Data were obtained from 45 gillnetters in Da Nang using questionnaires, which were administered between April and July of 2011. The results showed that large-scale vessels (engine power≥90. hp) had better economic performance than small-scale vessels (engine power<90. hp) with average gross revenue flows of 1346.7 and 750.7 million VND, respectively. The large-scale vessels further actualized positive profits (15% gross revenue), while the small-scale vessels demonstrated negative results (-0.4% gross revenue). The main operating costs of fuel and labor accounted for 44% and 26%, respectively, of the total operating expenses. However, the results of the data envelopment analysis (DEA) showed that the Da Nang gillnet fishery did not operate at full capacity and that the unused capacity and the technical inefficiency rates were approximately 21.2% and 10.8%, respectively. The over-use of fuel, net sheets, and number of days at sea in the large-scale vessels were 7%, 10%, and 3%, respectively, while these ratios in the small-scale vessels were 7%, 3%, and 7%, respectively. Overcapacity may be separated into two parts, one part resulting from the optimal technical use of inputs and a second part resulting from enhancing the current policies. As such, feasible policies may include implementing the buyback of small and unprofitable vessels, and reviewing subsidy programs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • Bennett, N.J., Dearden, P. Why local people do not support conservation: Community perceptions of marine protected area livelihood impacts, governance and management in Thailand (2014) Marine Policy, 44, pp. 107-116.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.08.017

Conservation success is often predicated on local support for conservation which is strongly influenced by perceptions of the impacts that are experienced by local communities and opinions of management and governance. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are effective conservation and fisheries management tools that can also have a broad array of positive and negative social, economic, cultural, and political impacts on local communities. Drawing on results from a mixed-methods study of communities on the Andaman Coast of Thailand, this paper explores perceptions of MPA impacts on community livelihood resources (assets) and outcomes as well as MPA governance and management. The area includes 17 National Marine Parks (NMPs) that are situated near rural communities that are highly dependent on coastal resources. Interview participants perceived NMPs to have limited to negative impacts on fisheries and agricultural livelihoods and negligible benefits for tourism livelihoods. Perceived impacts on livelihoods were felt to result from NMPs undermining access to or lacking support for development of cultural, social, political, financial, natural, human, physical, and political capital assets. Conflicting views emerged on whether NMPs resulted in negative or positive marine or terrestrial conservation outcomes. Perceptions of NMP governance and management processes were generally negative. These results point to some necessary policy improvements and actions to ameliorate: the relationship between the NMP and communities, NMP management and governance processes, and socio-economic and conservation outcomes. © 2013 The Authors.

  • Nguyen, T.M. Grading regulators: The impact of global and local indicators on Vietnam's business governance (2013) New York University Law Review, 88 (6), pp. 2254-2285.

International indicators are widely used as diagnostic tools for global governance. For the developing world, with scarce resources and complex social problems, indicators can help businesses, donors, and policymakers identify issues, tailor solutions, and measure impacts. This Note studies the dynamics between global and domestic indicators in Vietnam, particularly the ways they influence Vietnam's policy processes. It finds that while global indicators have advanced the notion of competitiveness and made it a priority of the national government, sub-national indicators-here, a ranking of Vietnam's provinces-play a significant role as a more tailored and focused tool to motivate internal competition for pro-business reforms. This Note therefore confirms the dominant viewpoint that global indicators influence a country's development agenda, but concludes that this effect is even more pronounced in the presence of robust local indicators. © 2013 by Trang (Mae) Nguyen (Nguyen Thu Trang), J.D., 2013, New York University School of Law; B.A., 2008, Bates College.

  • Hue, M.-T., Kennedy, K.J. Building a connected classroom: Teachers' narratives about managing the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students in Hong Kong secondary schools (2013) Pastoral Care in Education, 31 (4), pp. 292-308.
    DOI: 10.1080/02643944.2013.811697

Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India, Nepal, the Philippines and Thailand. Qualitative data were collected from interviews, through which the narratives of twenty-four teachers from four secondary schools were explored. The study showed that to address cultural diversity, a 'connected' classroom should be established by promoting interpersonal relationships, developing adaptive teaching strategies, keeping the balance between guidance and discipline and strengthening home-school collaboration. Implications for the development of teacher education will be presented. © 2013 NAPCE.

  • Tsujinaka, Y., Ahmed, S., Kobashi, Y. Constructing Co-governance between Government and Civil Society: An Institutional Approach to Collaboration (2013) Public Organization Review, 13 (4), pp. 411-426.
    DOI: 10.1007/s11115-013-0260-9

The aim of this paper is to analyze how civil society organizations (CSOs) collaborate with both developed and developing governments in Asia through institutional processes. It argues that in developed countries, institutional arrangements have a positive impact on collaboration. Favourable administrative governance can create collaboration between governments and CSOs. This paper reports on 3,944 studies of CSOs from 2004 to 2009 in Tokyo, Seoul, Manila, and Dhaka. CSOs in Tokyo have better combined collaborative and institutional processes than those in the other three cities. Governance in Seoul is more polarized than in the other cities, and in both Manila and Dhaka, despite there being a high degree of institutionalized relations between CSOs and the government, their collaboration is low. This research also finds that intermediary institutions between governments and CSOs play a role in co-governance. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  • Weaver, E.H., Frankenberg, E., Fried, B.J., Thomas, D., Wheeler, S.B., Paul, J.E. Effect of village midwife program on contraceptive prevalence and method choice in Indonesia (2013) Studies in Family Planning, 44 (4), pp. 389-409.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1728-4465.2013.00366.x

Indonesia established its Village Midwife Program in 1989 to combat high rates of maternal mortality. The program's goals were to address gaps in access to reproductive health care for rural women, increase access to and use of family planning services, and broaden the mix of available contraceptive methods. In this study, we use longitudinal data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey to examine the program's effect on contraceptive practice. We find that the program did not affect overall contraceptive prevalence but did affect method choice. Over time, for women using contraceptives, midwives were associated with increased odds of injectable contraceptive use and decreased odds of oral contraceptive and implant use. Although the Indonesian government had hoped that the Village Midwife Program would channel women into using longer-lasting methods, the women's "switching behavior" indicates that the program succeeded in providing additional outlets for and promoting the use of injectable contraceptives. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  • Huibin, X., Marzuki, A. When can the sleeping asian tiger awaken? International tourism development in Malaysia
    (2013) Tourismos, 8 (1), pp. 265-281.

The international market is very important for Malaysia's tourism industry. In the World Tourism rankings from 2005 till 2010, Malaysia was always ranked in the second place for international tourist arrivals in Asia and the Pacific region. However, in terms of the average tourism consumption of international tourist, Malaysia was in the last place. Nevertheless, if the average tourism consumption in Malaysia reaches 1862.20 USD, Malaysia could lead other nations in Asia and the Pacific region. Based on the experiences of international tourism development in Australia, India and Macao, this paper constructs a development pattern of international tourism for Malaysia based on existing conditions and the foundation of international tourism development. © University of the Aegean.

  • Hansen, H., Trifković, N. Food standards are good - for middle-class farmers (2014) World Development, 56, pp. 226-242.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.10.027

We estimate the causal effect of food standards on Vietnamese pangasius farmers' wellbeing measured by per capita consumption expenditure. We estimate both the average effects and the local average treatment effects on poorer and richer farmers by instrumental variable quantile regression. Our results indicate that large returns can be accrued from food standards, but only for the upper middle-class farmers, i.e., those between the 50% and 85% quantiles of the expenditure distribution. Overall, our result points to an exclusionary impact of standards for the poorest farmers while the richest do not apply standards because the added gain is too small. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


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