Jan 19, 2014

Academic Articles in 2nd week of Jan 2014

The 2nd weekly update of academic articles are here:

Neureiter, Michael. "Organized Labor and Democratization in Southeast Asia."Asian Survey 53, no. 6 (2013): 1063-1086.
This study argues that well organized labor movements and increasing labor mobilization played a crucial role in the democratic transitions in Indonesia in 1996 and the Philippines in 1966. In contrast, the presence of less active and less organized labor unions in Malaysia, Myanmar, and Singapore appears to be an important reason for the durability of authoritarianism in those countries.

Weiss, Meredith L. "Malaysia’s 13th General Elections: Same Result, Different Outcome." Asian Survey 53, no. 6 (2013): 1135-1158.
The incumbent coalition claimed victory in Malaysia's 13th general elections kt May 2013, securing a simple majority of parliamentary seats despite losing the popular vote. The dramatic result raises questions not only about the probity of the electoral process in Malaysia but also about the future of party politics there.

Abdullah, Walid Jumblatt. "Religious Representation in Secular Singapore: A Case Study of MUIS and Pergas." Asian Survey 53, no. 6 (2013): 1182-1204.
This paper Investigates the nature of secularism practiced by the Singapore state, focusing on the two main Islamic organizations, MUIS and Pergas. I postulate that the state uses "muscular" and "calibrated" secularism to manage them, and co-opts them either formally or informally. The two organizations agree to such an arrangement.

Barkin, Gareth. 2014. "Commercial Islam in Indonesia: How Television Producers Mediate Religiosity among National Audiences." The International Journal of Asian Studies no. 11 (01):1-24.
doi: 10.1017/S1479591413000181.
While Indonesia's burgeoning private television industry has prospered through the country's democratic transition and the rise of popular Islam, it has remained ideologically constrained by many of the content restrictions established during Suharto's New Order era. One area in which producers have broken these norms is in the field of religious imagery, and the adaptation of religiously-themed narratives and tropes. This article – based on a long-term ethnographic study of television producers in Indonesia and the social institutions that influence them – explores the strategies and goals behind the industry's handling of the imagined religious audience. It asserts that the tension of appeasing cultural conservatives has been redirected by the industry into content that appeals to the much larger demographic of moderate Muslims, through the adaptation of narrative conventions and stylistic forms that draw on an array of global media traditions. It examines new genres and conventions invoked by producers in their efforts to both placate and mobilize religious sentiment among Indonesia's culturally heterogeneous population, arguing that these practices promote a successful, commercial Islam that largely comports with neoliberal subjectivity.

Ma, Jianxiong. 2014. "The Rise of Gentry Power on the China–Burma Frontier since the 1870s: The Case of the Peng Family in Mianning, Southwest Yunnan." The International Journal of Asian Studies no. 11 (01):25-51.
doi: 10.1017/S1479591413000193.
From the 1870s to the 1940s, the construction of lineages among the Han settlers on the frontier between China's Yunnan province and Burma became significant. Through these lineages the construction of Han identity was also extended toward Burma along various transportation routes. In the continuing reformation of frontier society, gentry power, based on lineage corporations, expanded and performed a crucial role in the construction of a new style of border, as well as functioning as a leading force for ethnic competition by extending state power into the borderland. After the colonization of north Burma by the British in 1886, new economic opportunities attracted more Chinese merchants who built networks along transportation routes between cities in Burma and commercial centers in Yunnan, which also changed the social landscape of the frontier. The construction of lineages as a Han system not only overlapped with trade networks, but also provided sufficient economic and political resources to build a Han identity, which competed with other types of identity-polity systems – such as those of the Dai, the Lahu and the Wa – between the Mekong River and the Salween River.

Baviera, Aileen S. P. 2014. "Democracy, Development, and Women in Asia." Asian Politics & Policy no. 6 (1):1-3.
doi: 10.1111/aspp.12095.

Baaz, Mikael, and Mona Lilja. 2014. "Understanding Hybrid Democracy in Cambodia: The Nexus Between Liberal Democracy, the State, Civil Society, and a “Politics of Presence”." Asian Politics & Policy no. 6 (1):5-24.
doi: 10.1111/aspp.12086.
This article analyzes the gap between globally promoted definitions of liberal democracy and the different ways in which the concept is interpreted by individual politicians and civil society representatives in Cambodia. By taking as our point of departure the gap between “hegemonic” views of democracy and locally lived democracy experiences and strategies, we argue that one of the basic concepts of liberal democracy—the concept of the “politics of ideas”—does not easily match local facets of democracy. Followers of liberal democracy give priority to the representation of ideas and ideologies over the question of who represents them. This priority, however, seems to correspond poorly to the situation in present-day Cambodia. Based on extensive field material, the article demonstrates how Cambodian interpretations of the Western understanding of “liberal democracy” try to bridge the gap between the praxis of the “politics of ideas” and the “politics of presence.”

Ismail, Muhamad Takiyuddin, and Ahmad Fauzi Abdul Hamid. 2014. "Beyond the Look East Policy: United Malays National Organisation and the Fall of the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan." Asian Politics & Policy no. 6 (1):25-44.
doi: 10.1111/aspp.12090.
This article argues that the strong relationship between Malaysia and Japan is also stimulated by symbiotic ties binding together both countries' respective major political parties, i.e., the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) and the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). UMNO, especially under the leadership of Mahathir Mohamad (1981–2003), derived political lessons from developments affecting LDP in Japan. First, emulation of Japan's success in economic development became the basis for the Look East Policy launched in 1981. Second, which is the focus of this article, lessons were drawn from the failure of LDP to retain power twice, in 1993 and in 2009. Although LDP's reversal of fortunes served as a landmark for UMNO in situating changes to its trajectory since 1993, the analogical reasoning and political lessons applied by UMNO leaders were, to a large extent, flawed. Arguably, politicians frequently do misjudge in analogizing between different situations which at a glance seem to be comparable.

Kim, Junmo, Seung-Bum Yang, and Ador Torneo. 2014. "Marriage Immigration and Multicultural Families: Public Policies and Their Implications for the Philippines and South Korea." Asian Politics & Policy no. 6 (1):97-119.
doi: 10.1111/aspp.12091.
This article surveys marriage immigration from the Philippines to South Korea, the public policies of both governments, and ongoing developments, challenges, and their implications for future policy. Policies in both countries provide the context in which international marriages occur and impact the sociocultural, political, economic life of marriage immigrants and their “multicultural families.” Philippine policies are still generally limited to a ban on commercial brokerage and provision of predeparture orientation programs for migrant brides. The Korean government has adopted policies to support these groups and to transform South Korea into a “more mature, multicultural society,” but the results have so far been mixed. Sociodemographic, economic, and political trends suggest that marriage immigration will persist with the following implications: continued emphasis on rights and welfare in future policies; more stringent regulation of marriage agencies; an increasingly important role for marriage immigrants in policymaking and implementation; and the necessity of policy adjustments and international cooperation among stakeholders.

"“Myanmar Needs to Heal its Ethnic Divisions in Order to Achieve Peace and Democracy”." Asian Politics & Policy no. 6 (1):133-143.
doi: 10.1111/aspp.12092.
A Conversation with Lahpai Seng Raw, Founder, Metta Development Foundation, Republic of the Union of Myanmar
She began her work with refugees in the 1980s in the conflict-torn communities along Myanmar’s borders. A stay-at-home mother turned social worker, Lahpai Seng Raw helped launch the Metta Development Foundation in 1998 in Yangon to provide assistance to displaced persons in Myanmar's ethnic areas, a mission that expanded to helping victims of natural disasters. Over the last 15 years, Metta under her leadership has rim health care, agriculture, and peace projects and lifted the welfare of many of Myanmar's ethnic minorities, including the Karen, Kachin, Shan. Yakhine, and Pa'o, and

Ellis, Sotear, and Lynnaire M. Sheridan. 2014. "The legacy of war for community-based tourism development: learnings from Cambodia." Community Development Journal no. 49 (1):129-142. doi: 10.1093/cdj/bst015.
This paper investigates how resident perceptions affect the successful implementation of community-based tourism (CBT) in a least developed country (LDC) scenario. By realizing how past and present experiences of war affect resident perceptions, including how they view themselves, their community and tourism, we can build an understanding of how to assess the capacity for a community to successfully embrace and sustain CBT for development. This will be achieved by exploring two cases of CBT in Cambodia: the Banteay Chmmar subdistrict and Banlung town. These two cases represent a successful and unsuccessful implementation of CBT in Cambodia as an LDC utilizing tourism for development. Learnings from this situation can be applied to other post-war tourism and development destinations.

Ahmad, Azman. "The disengagement of the tourism businesses in ecotourism and environmental practices in Brunei Darussalam." Tourism Management Perspectives 10 (2014): 1-6.
DOI: 10.1016/j.tmp.2013.12.002
Brunei Darussalam is a peaceful and prosperous nation in Southeast Asia, sheltered from heavy industrialisation and excessive exploitation of its natural resources. Decades of dependence on oil and natural gas have brought wealth, but at the same time placed the small nation in a dilemma over the failure of its economy to diversify. Tourism has been distinguished as one of the key areas which can remedy the country's economic condition. Adamant in embracing sustainable development - development that promotes the quality of life of people, economic prosperity and environmental protection - the country is keen to ensure that it adopts a sustainable approach to developing its tourism industry. This paper attempts to identify the prospect as well as challenges of sustainable tourism in Brunei Darussalam from the perspective of the business organisations or enterprises in the tourism industry, based on data that were collected from a survey conducted among travel, transport, hospitality and visitor attraction sectors in the country. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Fairchild, Richard, Yilmaz Guney, and Yordying Thanatawee. "Corporate dividend policy in Thailand: Theory and evidence." International Review of Financial Analysis 31 (2014): 129-151.
DOI: 10.1016/j.irfa.2013.10.006
This paper examines dividend changes in an emerging market: Thailand. We begin by considering the possible effects of the Thai corporate environment on dividend policy. We develop a theoretical model that considers the relationship between the strength of investor power and dividends in an agency cost/free cashflow framework. This allows us to consider the conditions for the outcome (positive relationship) or substitute (negative relationship) models, as discussed by La Porta et al. (2000). Our model also allows us to consider the expropriation hypothesis, in which the presence of large controlling shareholders may actually reduce outside investor power, leading to lower dividends. We then turn to our empirical analysis. Employing a large sample of companies that changed dividends in Thailand during the period 1996-2009, we test for the signaling, free cashflow and life-cycle hypotheses. A further contribution of our analysis is that we consider the impact of investor power and ownership on dividends in Thailand. Overall, we find little support for the signaling hypothesis, but we find considerable support for the free cashflow and life-cycle hypotheses. Our analysis of ownership variables suggests that increasing investor power (for example, high ownership concentration together with the presence of domestic institutional ownership) results in higher dividends, in support of the outcome model, rather than the substitution or expropriation models. © 2013.

Terry, William C. 2014. "The perfect worker: discursive makings of Filipinos in the workplace hierarchy of the globalized cruise industry". Social & Cultural Geography. 15 (1): 73-93.
DOI: 10.1080/14649365.2013.864781
Filipinos are by far the largest nationality represented on cruise ships despite the fact that cruise lines can hire from wherever they choose. The reasons for this phenomenon lie in a mélange of political, economic, and cultural factors, yet when polled, industry insiders repeatedly cite well-worn Filipino stereotypes as the primary cause. This reflects a system in which discourses surrounding workers become fixed in ways that ideologically frame Filipinos as docile and compliant yet industrious and inexpensive. Filipinos are thus constructed as readymade workers for subordinate positions rather than for roles as leaders on the ship. This case shows the subtle ways that labor becomes stratified along ethnic lines and how discourses become the fault lines that define and reproduce the great inequalities between different groups of workers. The task of this article is to understand the ways that discourses relate to the workplace positioning of Filipino seafarers and reinforce a reading of 'Filipino-ness' that marks them as the perfect sort of worker for the cruise lines. It is further suggested that such framings are subject to revision via worker agency and changing socioeconomic labor market conditions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Tan, Qian Hui. 2014. "Postfeminist possibilities: unpacking the paradoxical performances of heterosexualized femininity in club spaces". Social & Cultural Geography. 15 (1): 23-48.
DOI: 10.1080/14649365.2013.860186
One of the ways in which the heterosexualization of women's bodies is made apparent is through the blatant promotion of Ladies' Night at night clubs. These are typically weekly events, of which women are granted complimentary entry by club operators. Ladies' Night is thus popularly construed as a time and space in which men can gain access to many 'heterosexy' female bodies. The deliberate deployment of specific kinds of (post)feminine bodies and subjectivities-slim, savvy, and sassy-in club promotional material is often couched in discourses that highlight female expression, consumption, and autonomy. Such a celebratory rhetoric of women as empowered actors seems to suggest that traditional gendered expectations of women as self-reserved, timid and vulnerable to sexual aggression are archaic and are no longer valid. In light of this, I investigate how women negotiate a postfeminist terrain within the context of Singapore's night clubbing scene. By employing qualitative methods such as in-depth interviews, ethnographic work, and discourse analysis, I argue that clubs are paradoxical spaces for performing gendered and (hetero)sexualized selves that vacillate between affirming and subverting heteropatriarchal regimes. In so doing, this paper hopes to contribute to the scholarship on feminist geography by bringing recent debates on postfeminism into a productive conversation with the literature on (hetero)sexuality and space. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Long, Choi Sang, Zaiton Ibrahim, and Tan Owee Kowang. "An Analysis on the Relationship between Lecturers’ Competencies and Students’ Satisfaction."International Education Studies 7, no. 1 (2013): p37.
DOI: 10.5539/ies.v7n1p37
This study aims at determining the impact of lecturers competencies on students satisfaction in a private college in Malaysia. Attaining student satisfaction is one of the most critical objectives in all institutions of higher learning. Institution that fails to do so will definitely effect their reputation and students intake in future. Dissatisfied students may also affect their academic performance. This study employed quantitative method in examining the hypothesis. Survey method is used for data collection. Fourteen competencies are selected to be measured for this study and total of 260 students are chosen as sample in this case study. Competencies such as knowledge on subject, clarity of presentation, interaction with students, teaching creativity, clarifying learning outcome, class activity and lecture notes are significantly relates to student satisfaction positively. The findings also show that lecturer's knowledge of subject contributes most to students' satisfaction.

Yeoh, Poh‐Lin. "Internationalization and Performance Outcomes of Entrepreneurial Family SMEs: The Role of Outside CEOs, Technology Sourcing, and Innovation." Thunderbird International Business Review 56, no. 1 (2014): 77-96.
DOI: 10.1002/tie.21597
Previous studies suggest that the relationship between strategic change and firm performance depends on the organizational conditions under which the change is initiated and implemented. An important organizational condition that is salient in understanding the performance effect of strategic change is executive leadership. Focusing on outside succession among family businesses in an emerging economy, this study attempts to understand the role of outside chief executive officers (CEOs) on the firm's innovative and internationalization efforts. Based on interviews with 110 small and medium-sized family companies in Malaysia, this study found that functional and process upgrading strategies depend not only on the firms' internal and external sourcing strategies but also is moderated by the international experience of the outside CEO. Focusing on both financial and nonfinancial performance outcomes, the mediating effect of internationalization on the relationship between innovation and performance found mixed results. Findings suggest a fully mediating effect between process innovations and financial performance while a fully and partially mediating effect was observed for the relationships between product innovation and process innovation and nonfinancial performance, respectively. Finally, the interaction between international experience of outside CEOs and firm's degree of internationalization (DOI) is positively related to both financial and nonfinancial performance suggesting that the internationalization-performance relationship is strengthened when an outside CEO possesses greater international experience. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Warner, Malcolm. "Comparing human resource management in China and Vietnam: An overview." Human Systems Management 32, no. 4 (2013): 217-229.
DOI: 10.3233/HSM-130800
This paper attempts to compare human resource management (HRM) in China and Vietnam. The main thrust of the paper is broadly interpretative, as well as analytical. First, it sets out seven dimensions relating to the evolution of people-management there, namely, historical, cultural, political, legal, economic, demographic and management. Next, it deals with a number of contemporary issues relating to the implementation of HRM in the two countries. Last, it presents a set of conclusions regarding the national differentiation of HRM models and the implications for management in Asia. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Koleini, Sara, Pardis Parto, Sholeh Arastoopoor, and Marzieh Siamak. "Malaysian Scholarly Open Access Journals during 2005-2012: A Survey."International Journal of Information Science & Management 11, no. 2 (2013).
The main idea of this survey was to gather the data related to Malaysian Open Access Journals (OAJs) with respect to their subject, host organization, indexing, full text availability and language during 2005-2012. Malaysian journals were selected for this survey because Malaysia is currently one of the successful countries in science and technology among other Islamic countries. Data gathering was performed through using various sources of information such as literature, search engines, and directories. Altogether 216 Malaysian scientific OAJs were identified and analyzed. Most of these journals are published by universities in comparison with research institutes. The number of OAJs in "Social Sciences" and "Engineering and Technology" is higher than other subject fields. The main language of Malaysian OAJs is English.

Mohd, Siti Hamizah, Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah, and Stilianos Fountas. 2013. "Inflation, Inflation Uncertainty And Output Growth: Recent Evidence From Asean-5 Countries". The Singapore Economic Review. 58 (04):1350030
DOI: 10.1142/S0217590813500306
This paper investigates the links between inflation, its uncertainty and economic growth in five ASEAN countries over the period 1980: Q1-2011: Q3. We rely on the Exponential GARCH (EGARCH) model to explore the causal relationship among the three variables. The major findings are: (i) inflation uncertainty increases more in response to positive inflation surprises than to negative surprises in all countries; (ii) inflationary shocks affect positively inflation uncertainty as predicted by the Friedman-Ball hypothesis; (iii) there is no evidence to suggest that inflation uncertainty causes inflation and; (iv) there is evidence that inflation affects growth negatively, both directly and indirectly (via the inflation uncertainty channel). The indirect effect is clearly stronger as it applies in all countries in the sample. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

HaHashmi A.R., and Mok W.J. 2013. "Determinants of low fertility in Singapore: Evidence from a household survey". Singapore Economic Review. 58 (4):1350023.
DOI: 10.1142/S0217590813500239
Below-replacement fertility is a common problem among the rich countries with far-reaching economic and social implications. The problem is more acute in some economically fast-growing Asian countries where the fertility decline has been more rapid and the current fertility rates have reached levels that are unprecedented in recent history. In this paper, data from a unique household survey have been used to understand the determinants of low fertility in one such country: Singapore. The total fertility rate in Singapore has dropped from 4.7 children per woman in 1965 to 1.2 in 2011. This is well below the replacement level of 2.1 and one of the lowest in the world. The authors identify three key determinants of fertility in Singapore: (1) age at marriage; (2) household income; and (3) number of siblings' children. They find that fertility is negatively related to age at marriage and positively related to the number of siblings' children. The relationship between fertility and household income is U-shaped: the relationship is negative for household incomes of up to S$21 000 (in 2010 Singapore dollars) and positive for higher incomes. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Talib, Ismail S. "Malaysia and Singapore." The Journal of Commonwealth Literature 48, no. 4 (2013): 529-540.
DOI: 10.1177/0021989413506107
A prominent feature of the English-language literature of Singapore and Malaysia in recent years is the emergence of two major figures in the literary landscape: Tash Aw and Tan Twan Eng The year under review saw the longlisting of the third Malaysian novel for the Booker prize; Tan Twan Eng's Garden of Evening Mists; Aw's The Harmony Silk Factory was longlisted in 2005, and Tan's The Gift of Rain in 2007. Tan's novel went a step further by being subsequently selected for the Booker shortlist. Although (he predictions of the winner were largely centred on the two English novelists on the shortlist. Hilary Mantel and Will Self, Tan was seen as a strong con-lender, with the British bookmaker, William Hill, placing odds thai he was the third most likely author to win the prize. One of the judges of the Booker, Peter Stothard, in fact noted that the book's central character, Aritomo, was "one of the most memorable characters in all the 30,000 or so pages we've read this year" (Guardian, 12
The Frank O'Connor prize for the short story may not be as well known as the Booker, but it should be noted that a Malaysian and two Singapore authors had their works longlisted for (he prize during the year. The Malaysian Dina Zaman was selected for her collection of short stories. The King of the Sea. The Singaporeans, Dave Chua and O Thiam Chin, were respectively selected tor The Beating and Other Stories and The Rest of Your Life and Everything Thai Comes with It (2011). It should be noted too, that this was the second time that O Thiam Chin was longlisted for the Frank O'Connor prize: he was previously longlisted in 2010, for his volume of short stories, Free-Falling Man (2009).

Quang, Nguyen Ngoc, Danny Wildemeersch, and Jan Masschelein. "Community forests as heterotopia. The case of the Mu community forest–Ngoc Son–Ngo Luong Nature Reserve, Vietnam." International Journal of Environmental Studies70, no. 6 (2013): 877-892. DOI: 10.1080/00207233.2013.849515
This paper examines issues of culture and power in regard to the Mu sacred forest, Vietnam, a community forest. The research uses Foucault's notion of 'heterotopia' as a heuristic tool to interpret forest management. It appears that the Mu sacred forest can be understood as a space of 'self reflective construction', but also a space that might dissolve, destabilize, interrupt and suspend power. The moment of power suspension frees people from their usual frames. They can escape to some extent from authority and repression. This suggests that sustainable forest management can be promoted through acceptance of local culture and that community forest can be a 'space of suspension and learning'. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Sanib , Noor Izza Rozian, Yuhanis Abdul Aziz, Zaiton Samdin and Khalid Ab Rahim. Comparison of marketing mix dimensions between local and international hotel customers in malaysia. International Journal of Economics and Management, 7 (2) (2013), pp. 297-313.
The main purpose of this paper is to compare the perception of local and international customer of marketing mix components in the hotel industry in Malaysia. The exploratory study involved 282 respondents, employed self-completed questionnaire survey to collect data from local and international hotel customers. T-test analysis and One-way ANOVA are used to identify the significant mean difference of marketing mix components between local and international hotel customer. The main finding indicated that the three components of marketing mix namely product and services, promotion and people have significant differences between the means for both local and international hotel customers. This study also revealed that the product/services and promotion also had significance mean difference between the means of male and female hotel customer. Implications and limitations of the study are also discussed.

Htay, Sheila Nu Nu, Ridzwana Mohd Said and Syed Ahmed Salman. Impact of corporate governance on disclosure quality: Empirical evidence from listed banks in Malaysia. International Journal of Economics and Management, 7 (2) (2013) , pp. 242-279.
The Asian financial crisis in 1997 has awakened the regulators and corporates on the importance of corporate governance. In any country's economy, banking sector plays an important role for the better economy. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to examine the relationship between corporate governance and disclosure quality of listed banks on Bursa Malaysia. Corporate governance variables tested in this study are the board leadership structure, board composition, board size, director ownership, institutional ownership and block ownership. The researchers developed the disclosure index and it will be checked against the information disclosed in the annual reports. Then, in calculating the weighted disclosure score, the views of accountants and financial analysts are also considered through survey questionnaire. The results reveal that better disclosure quality of the annual reports in banking sector can be achieved by having separate board leadership structure, higher proportion of independent non-executive directors, higher board size, lower ownership by the directors, institutional and block shareholders.

Habaradas, R.B. "Corporate Social Initiatives In The Philippines: Experiences Of Four Major Corporations." Journal Of Legal, Ethical And Regulatory Issues 16.2 (2013): 1-16.
While philanthropy is still largely regarded as "icing on the cake" (Caroll, 1991), some large Philippine companies have been engaged in philanthropic activities in light of the government's failure to adequately address social problems such as poverty, joblessness, and hunger. For some companies, corporate philanthropy has evolved from simply transferring resources (i.e., corporate giving) to being directly involved in community-based programs. When these corporate social initiatives (CSI) bring "social and economic goals into alignment" and improve a company's long-term business prospects, they enhance the competitive context of the corporation (Porter & Kramer, 2002), and provide strong justification for sustained philanthropic efforts. This paper presents the experience of four major Philippine corporations in implementing CSIs that provide both social and business value, thus adding to the empirical evidence supporting Porter and Kramer's proposition.

Nugraha, Kunta, and Phil Lewis. "The Impact of Taxation on Income Distribution: Evidence from Indonesia." The Singapore Economic Review. 58.4 (2013): 1350024
DOI: 10.1142/S0217590813500240
The Indonesian economy has grown significantly since 2000, but income inequality has increased since 2001. One of the possible government tools to improve income inequality is through taxation. This paper evaluates household income, income tax, taxes on production, and their impact on income distribution. The major data sources are the National Socioeconomic Survey and the Input-Output Table. The key finding is that income tax only slightly improves income distribution, but taxes on production worsen income distribution. The other important finding is that both forms of taxation are regressive, especially for lower and middle income household. The results suggest that Indonesian taxation worsens income inequality. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Ibrahim, Mansor H, and Siong H. O. O. K. Law. "Dynamics of Consumer Expenditure and Stock Market Prices and Uncertainty: Malaysian Evidence." The Singapore Economic Review. 58.4 (2013): 1350025
DOI: 10.1142/S0217590813500252
The present paper analyzes the role of stock market, more specifically real stock prices and stock market uncertainty/volatility, on private consumption behavior for an emerging market, Malaysia, using quarterly data from 1991 to 2009. Employing the autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration test, the paper establishes a long-run equilibrium that ties private consumption to its determinants - real income, real stock prices, real lending rate, and stock market volatility. In the long run, the presence of the stock market wealth effect is documented. At the same time, the stock market volatility is also noted to depress private consumption particularly when the volatility is at the degree as observed during the Asian crisis. The authors further note the short-run influences of real stock price changes on consumption growth and the adjustment of private consumption to the long-run level when it is modeled in an error-correction setting. Our simple simulation indicates that the drop in the private consumption due to the decline in stock market wealth post-crisis is substantial, amounting to 2.7% of average post-crisis gross domestic product. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.


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