Feb 10, 2014

Academic Articles in 1st & 2ndweek of Feb 2014

The 1st&2nd weekly update of academic articles in Feb 2014 are here:



Jagtiani, Reema B. , and Francis E. Hutchinson. 2014. APEC 2013-2014: Continuing to Connect. ISEAS Perspective 2014 (06), http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/ISEAS%20Perspective%202014_06%20-%20APEC%202013-2014%20(Continuing%20to%20Connect).pdf - The 2013 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Economic Leaders’ Meeting endorsed the ‘APEC Framework on Connectivity’ and ‘APEC Multiyear Plan on Infrastructure Development and Investment’ to move beyond trade liberalisation and establish connectivity as a priority area to seize gains available from a better-connected region.

- As this year’s Chair, China is likely to maintain ‘strengthening connectivity’ as a central theme. This dovetails with its efforts to engage Southeast Asia.

- Many member economies will have to invest heavily in physical infrastructure but public funds alone will be far from able to cover this great need. Private sector participation will be indispensable in alleviating the infra- structure-financing deficiency.

- Readiness assessments reveal that several developing APEC member economies require considerable internal reform before they are able to implement public-private partnership programmes for the successful receipt and deployment of private sector investment.

- The shift towards trade facilitation represents the next step in APEC’s trade and investment agenda. Its strategy of boosting connectivity in its institutional, physical, and people-to-people aspects will be a key component in this direction.

Tran, Thi Tuyet. 2014. "Governance in higher education in Vietnam – a move towards decentralization and its practical problems." Journal of Asian Public Policy no. 7 (1):71-82
Decentralization, the transfer of decision-making authority, responsibility and tasks from higher to lower organizational levels, has been adopted as a policy in governance in higher education (HE) in Vietnam. With the decision to move away from the traditional centralization in decision-making, the government expects to bring HE institutions more autonomy and accountability, and increase the effectiveness of the system. However, the limited understanding and experience in leading the change, the unclear strategies for successful policy implementation, the overlapping functions among different related authorities and the lack of necessary financial support for the change, all hinder the effort to decentralize the system. The reform in governance in HE in Vietnam also proves that decentralization is not necessarily a good thing, especially when the lower organizations who receive the power are not strong enough to create a positive change, and when the central ministry also loosens the control over the outcomes or the goals the lower organizations need to achieve.

Cuesta, J. and Madrigal, L. (2014), Equity in Education Expenditure in Thailand. Development Policy Review, 32: 239–258.
doi: 10.1111/dpr.12053

This article analyses the distributional effects of education spending across regions of Thailand, a country that purportedly seeks to reduce regional welfare disparities through decentralisation. It finds that public expenditure on education is neither progressive nor pro-poor, although there are sizeable regional differences, driven by the pro-rich distributional profiles of public tertiary education spending and public transfers to private education. Policy-wise, these results suggest that the current decentralised allocation of educational spending is not consistent with an equity-enhancing goal.

Brekke, Idunn. "Long-term labour market consequences of dropping out of upper secondary school Minority disadvantages?." Acta Sociologica 57, no. 1 (2014): 25-39.


In this study, I compare the labour market outcomes of school completers and school dropouts 10 years after they have entered upper secondary education. I compare second-generation immigrant youth from Turkey, Morocco, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and Chile with native majority youth in terms of economic inactivity, employment probability and educational enrolment. I use register data from Statistics Norway, which contain information on all students who entered upper secondary school between 1994 and 1998. The results show that youths who drop out of school have a lower probability of being employed than school completers. However, the labour market penalty of dropping out is not more excessive among second-generation immigrant youth than among native majority youth. © The Author(s) 2013.

DOI: 10.1177/0001699313495056

Chen, Danhong, and David Abler. "Demand Growth for Animal Products in the BRIIC Countries." Agribusiness 30, no. 1 (2014): 85-97.


We conduct a meta-analysis of studies of consumer demand for animal products in the BRIIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, and China) to gauge how future demands are likely to evolve. The BRIIC countries accounted for more than one-fourth of global GDP in purchasing power parity terms in 2010, and are projected to have high rates of economic growth during the coming decade. Econometric results indicate that demands are likely to become more price-responsive but less income-responsive. These effects will likely become significant over time in countries such as China and India where per capita incomes are projected to grow rapidly. These developments may benefit exporters of animal products to the BRIIC countries if trade agreements are signed that open up the relatively closed markets for animal products in these countries. [EconLit Subject Codes: Q110, Q170]. © 2014 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOI: 10.1002/agr.21368

Vu, Huong, Mark Holmes, Steven Lim, and Tuyen Tran. "Exports and profitability: a note from quantile regression approach." Applied Economics Letters 21, no. 6 (2014).


Studies of the linkage between exports and profitability often use mean regression approaches and focus only on European countries. Using a panel data quantile regression approach, this study analyses the linkage between export behaviour and profit growth in Vietnam. Using a panel dataset from 2005 to 2009, our results show an insignificant linkage between export status and firm profit growth when using OLS. However, when using a quantile approach, export participation is found to be positively related to profitability for those firms with high profit growth but negatively related for those firms with low profit growth. This might suggest that the productivity advantages of exporters with low profit growth are absorbed by costs relating to trading activities in overseas markets. © 2014 © Taylor & Francis.

DOI: 10.1080/13504851.2013.866197

Almudhaf, Fahad. "Testing for random walk behaviour in CIVETS exchange rates." Applied Economics Letters 21, no. 1 (2014): 60-63.


This article investigates the random walk behaviour of CIVETS (Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey and South Africa) foreign exchange rates against the US dollar using weekly data from February 2007 to April 2012. Using variance ratio tests, the results suggest that the nominal exchange rates of Vietnamese dong and Egyptian pounds violate the random walk hypothesis and do not follow a martingale process. However, the Colombian peso, Indonesian rupiah, Turkish lira and South African rand exchange rate markets are considered weak-form efficient. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis.

DOI: 10.1080/13504851.2013.839856

Lee, Sang Kook. 2013. "Migrant schools in the Thailand-Burma borderland: from the informal to the formal." Asia Pacific Journal of Education no. 34 (1):125-138.


This article examines migrant schools in the Thailand-Burma borderland. Substantial existence of migrant schools enables migrant children to have their own education even in the absence of proper legal status. The growth of migrant schools marked the building up of a migrant education institution in cooperation with international partners, showing progress in the constitution of migrant lives. Since the mid-2000s, the Thai government has engaged in migrant schools in an attempt to regularize them as learning centres under its guidance. This article argues that it should not necessarily be interpreted as a victory of the state over the migrants and migrant schools. Rather, it shows the impressive growth of the migrant education institution, bringing the state into play and has achieved recognition from the state as a legitimate formal institution. © 2013 National Institute of Education, Singapore.

DOI: 10.1080/02188791.2013.803458

Butler, Gareth, Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore, and Paolo Mura. 2012. "Heritage Tourism in Malaysia: Fostering a Collective National Identity in an Ethnically Diverse Country." Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research no. 19 (2):199-218.


As the processes associated with globalisation swiftly erode distinct cultures and identities, it has been argued that heritage attractions have emerged as powerful communicators in developing collective national identities. Although many countries reveal histories and collective pasts that are universally representative of homogenous populations, Malaysia represents a distinctly contrasting scenario. Malaysian heritage attractions do not necessarily represent a singular population but three distinctive ethnic groups. Thus, selecting heritage attractions that appropriately represent Malaysia remains a complicated issue. Using photographs as "real-world" variables to supplement focus-group interviews, this article reveals that young Malaysians exhibit a limited understanding of religious heritage attractions and have developed identities that are highly specific to their ethnicity and own religious beliefs. However, the stories told by several respondents also show that Malaysia's ethnic- or religious-centred heritage attractions have the power to foster a simultaneous collective national identity if promoted effectively. © 2012 Asia Pacific Tourism Association.

DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2012.735682

Jarvis, Joy, Claire Dickerson, Kit Thomas, and Sally Graham. "The Action–Reflection–Modelling (ARM) Pedagogical Approach for Teacher Education: a Malaysia-UK Project." Australian Journal of Teacher Education 39, no. 3 (2014): 5.


This article presents the Action - Reflection - Modelling (ARM) pedagogical approach for teacher education developed during a Malaysia-UK collaborative project to construct a Bachelor of Education (Honours) degree programme in Primary Mathematics, with English and Health and Physical Education as minor subjects. The degree programme was written collaboratively by teacher educators in two Institutes of Teacher Education in Malaysia and in the University of Hertfordshire, UK, to meet the requirements for training Malaysian school teachers to teach in Malaysian schools. A cohort of 120 students studied the programme full-time over four years, graduating in 2010. The three principles of the ARM approach were chosen to underpin the learning and teaching for the programme. These principles highlight the role of active participation and active learning on the part of the learner; the value of reflective learning and reflection for both student teachers and pupils; and modelling by staff to student teachers and by student teachers to pupils in school. The approach was aligned with the curriculum specifications for mathematics in primary schools in Malaysia, which emphasised components of active learning. This article explains how the ARM approach was developed, shared and used during the BEd degree programme; provides the rationale for selecting the three principles; and describes the research methods used to explore the views and experiences of programme participants. Some findings from the research are presented, drawn from a dataset that comprises survey responses from more than 180 participants: Malaysian senior managers, teacher educators, student teachers and school mentors. The findings are discussed in the context of using ARM in teacher education and in primary schools in Malaysia, and of implementing change in learning and teaching. Throughout this project the teacher educators from Malaysia and the UK engaged in dialogue about their professional practice and learnt about the personal, professional and cultural values and beliefs that shaped the pedagogies of both parties and of the individual practitioners. The value of articulating pedagogy as a means of developing practice endorses the views of others with expertise in this area who stress the importance of making pedagogies explicit in teacher education and has implications for the practice of student teachers and teacher educators.


Tan, Jeff. "Running out of steam? Manufacturing in Malaysia." Cambridge Journal of Economics 38, no. 1 (2014): 153-180.


This article examines the process of deindustrialisation in developing countries, looking at the case of Malaysia. It provides a framework to examine how industrial structure and domestic technological capabilities are affected by the wider challenges of late industrialisation, changes in global accumulation and domestic class formations. It discusses the emerging evidence of Malaysia's premature deindustrialisation, and how this is the result of broader accumulation strategies that were primarily driven by internal factors related to the emergence of a Malay middle class and supported by changes in global accumulation processes related to the development of global production networks and financialisation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Cambridge Political Economy Society. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1093/cje/bet032

Choo, Suzanne S. "Cultivating a Hospitable Imagination: Re‐Envisioning the World Literature Curriculum Through a Cosmopolitan Lens." Curriculum Inquiry 44, no. 1 (2014): 68-89.


When world literature as a subject was introduced to schools and colleges in the United States during the 1920s, its early curriculum was premised on the notion of bounded territoriality which assumes that identities of individuals, cultures, and nation-states are fixed, determinable, and independent. The intensification of global mobility in an interconnected 21st century calls for educators to re-envision the world literature curriculum through a cosmopolitan lens. I argue that such reconceptualizations necessitate reclaiming the primacy of the other which suggests the importance of cultivating an imagination hospitable to the other. In the first part of the article, I discuss inherent paradoxes underlying cosmopolitanism in both social and political domains which then point to the role of the hospitable imagination as a vital intervention disrupting individualistic and instrumental agendas. The hospitable imagination manifests in other-oriented cultural creativity in which creativity is a means culminating in responsibility to the other. In the second part of the article, I utilize cross-comparative case-study analysis of world literature teachers in three cities-New York, Perth, and Singapore-to theorize cosmopolitan approaches, particularly curricula practices, that foster hospitable ways of imagining through continually problematizing the boundaries of openness toward the other. Ultimately, such practices aspire toward unconditional, absolute hospitality involving decentering the self and deterritorializing interpretations of the other. © 2014 by The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto.

DOI: 10.1111/curi.12037

Engel, Susan, and Anggun Susilo. "Shaming and Sanitation in Indonesia: A Return to Colonial Public Health Practices?." Development and Change 45, no. 1 (2014): 157-178.


Adequate sanitation is vital to human health, yet progress on the Millennium Development Goal for sanitation has been slow and the target is likely to be missed by one billion people. Indonesia has the third highest number of people of any country in the world without access to sanitation and, like most developing countries, it is devoting insufficient resources to the issue. In rural areas, rather than providing additional funding, the government - with support of the World Bank - has promoted the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach, which uses social mobilization to encourage people to construct their own latrines. In Indonesia as elsewhere, CLTS involves more than just education and encouragement; it uses social shaming and punishments. The authors argue that this is not only an inadequate approach but one which echoes coercive, race-based colonial public health practices. This article thus integrates extant historiography on Indonesian colonial medicine with contemporary scholarly literature and field research on CLTS using case studies of a 1920s hookworm-eradication programme funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, and the current World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme, both in Java. © 2014 International Institute of Social Studies.

DOI: 10.1111/dech.12075

Fredman, Zach. ""The Specter of an Expansionist China": Kennedy Administration Assessments of Chinese Intentions in Vietnam*." Diplomatic History (2013).


The Chinese Revolution, Korean War, and McCarthyism loomed large over Kennedy administration assessments of Chinese intentions in Vietnam. The president and his advisors disagreed over the exact nature of the Chinese threat, but they uniformly believed in a dangerous, expansionist China. Their assessments promoted cautious escalation in Vietnam, where Kennedy sought to avoid "losing" another Asian country to Communism without provoking another war like Korea. This, in turn, promoted Chinese militancy. Central to Kennedy administration thinking was the idea that Vietnam served as a test case for Beijing's more radical foreign policy line vis-à-vis Moscow. This article traces the development and influence of such assessments. It also argues that the China factor informed Kennedy and Johnson administration notions of credibility. Holding back or reversing Communist gains in Asia by supporting Saigon offered these administrations the chance to kick once and for all the "who lost China" stigma that had haunted the Democratic Party since 1949.

DOI: 10.1093/dh/dht071

Hallinger, Phillip, and Moosung Lee. "Mapping instructional leadership in Thailand Has education reform impacted principal practice?." Educational Management Administration & Leadership 42, no. 1 (2014): 6-29.


Over the past two decades a growing body of international research suggests that instructional leadership from the principal is essential for the improvement of teaching and learning in schools. However, in many parts of the world, the practice of instructional leadership remains both poorly understood and outside the main job description of the principal. Thus, in many nations, the expectation for principals to act as instructional leaders represents a major change from traditional practice. The current study explores the principal's changing role as an instructional leader in Thailand, where education reforms adopted in 1999 sought to change modal approaches to teaching and learning as well as school management. The study employed surveys of principal instructional leadership conducted prior to and following adoption of Thailand's National Education Act 1999 to assess change in principal practice. The results suggest that despite new system expectations for principal to act as instructional leaders, the predominant orientation of Thai principals remains largely unchanged. The authors recommend that more systematic and substantial steps are needed to train and support principals in making this change in their role. © The Author(s) 2013.

DOI: 10.1177/1741143213502196

Madden, Meggan. "Walking the line: quality assurance policy development and implementation in Việt Nam." Higher Education (2014): 1-14.


Although Việt Nam's experiences with quality assurance (QA) policy development have been influenced by its relationships with, and funding from, the World Bank and regional organizations, the state-centric values of the Socialist Republic of Việt Nam still navigate the implementation process. The development of QA in Vietnamese higher education has walked a fine line between neo-liberal, free market strategies and state-centric, protectionist perspectives. Policy document analysis and key informant interviews show that the implementation of QA policies in Việt Nam is an example of how one developing country walks the line between state-centric values and neoliberal principles.

DOI: 10.1007/s10734-013-9642-8

Warner, Geoffrey. "Leaving Vietnam: Nixon, Kissinger and Ford, 1969–1975, Part two: January 1972–January 1973." International Affairs 90, no. 1 (2014): 185-198.


Although anticipated, the North Vietnamese 'Easter offensive' against South Vietnam in 1972 created problems for the United States. Having reached a rapprochement with Communist China, President Nixon and his foreign policy adviser, Henry Kissinger, believed that the attack could have serious repercussions for their attempt to balance it with détente with the Soviet Union, not to mention the US's credibility as a Great Power. They also feared it would damage Nixon's prospects for re-election in November 1972. Despite opposition from his Defense Secretary, Nixon renewed the bombing of North Vietnam which had been stopped by President Johnson in 1968. This helped to bring the North Vietnamese back to the conference table and after complex negotiations, a draft peace agreement was ready for initialling in October 1972. However, President Thieu of South Vietnam saw significant drawbacks in the agreement and refused to go along with it. The North Vietnamese chose to have one more attempt to win on the battlefield and President Nixon, who had scaled down the bombing when peace seemed closer and won a landslide victory in the presidential election, launched another eleven days of concentrated bombing raids on North Vietnam at the turn of the year. This led to the final agreement initialled on 23 January 1973, which President Thieu reluctantly acceded to. Thieu's reservations were justified, but Nixon realized that, despite his electoral victory, he could not count on the continued support of Congress and the American people for the war. Far from bringing 'peace with honor in Vietnam and Southeast Asia', the January agreement was a fig leaf to cover American withdrawal. © 2014 The Royal Institute of International Affairs.

DOI: 10.1111/1468-2346.12102

Gharleghi, Behrooz, Abu Hassan Shaari, and Najla Shafighi. "Predicting exchange rates using a novel "cointegration based neuro-fuzzy system"." International Economics 137 (2014): 88-103.


The present study focuses upon the applications of currently available intelligence techniques to forecast exchange rates in short and long horizons. The predictability of exchange rate returns is investigated through the use of a novel cointegration-based neuro-fuzzy system, which is a combination of a cointegration technique; a Fuzzy Inference System; and Artificial Neural Networks. The Relative Price Monetary Model for exchange rate determination is used to determine the inputs, consisting of macroeconomic variables and the type of interactions amongst the variables, in order to develop the system. Considering exchange rate returns of three ASEAN countries (Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore), our results reveal that the cointegration-based neuro-fuzzy system model consistently outperforms the Vector Error Correction Model by successfully forecasting exchange rate monthly returns with a high level of accuracy. © 2013 CEPII (Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales), a center for research and expertise on the world economy.

DOI: 10.1016/j.inteco.2013.12.001

Francisco, Jamil Paolo S. "Why households buy bottled water: a survey of household perceptions in the Philippines." International Journal of Consumer Studies 38, no. 1 (2014): 98-103.


This study investigates the determinants of household buying decisions to purchase bottled water or purified water from refilling stations among households in Metro Cebu, Philippines. A survey of 360 households was conducted to obtain data on household sources of drinking water, household bottled water buying behaviour and perceptions of water quality. A binary probit model was used to examine the effects of socio-economic and perception-based variables on the likelihood that a household regularly bought bottled or purified water. Results show that households that perceived their primary source of water, whether from the tap or from other sources, to be unsafe were more likely to buy bottled or purified water. Education of household heads, the presence of children ages 0-5 years, household size and price were also found to have significant effects. Income, however, was not found to have influenced the decision to buy. Having piped access to the local water district and knowledge of government assurances about water safety were also not found to have a significant impact. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

DOI: 10.1111/ijcs.12069

Zeren, Feyyaz, and Mustafa KoC. "The Nexus between Energy Consumption and Financial Development with Asymmetric Causality Test: New Evidence from Newly Industrialized Countries." International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy 4, no. 1 (2013): 83-91.


In this study, the relationship between energy consumption and financial development is investigated via Hatemi-J asymmetric causality test (2012) which is able to separate positive and negative shocks in analysis. In order to determine different dimensions of financial system, deposit money bank assets to GDP (dbagdp), financial system deposits to GDP (fdgdp) and private credit to GDP (pcrdbgdp) were used as three different indicators. As a result of this study on Newly Industrialized 7 Countries spanning the period 1971 till 2010, both positive and negative shocks existed for Malaysia and Mexico, causality from energy consumption to financial developments emerged for Philippines in only negative shocks. While two-way causality occurred for India, Turkey and Thailand, there was not for South Africa.


Isa, Khadijah. "Tax complexities in the Malaysian corporate tax system: minimise to maximise." International Journal of Law and Management 56, no. 1 (2014): 50-65.


Purpose: This paper aims to examine areas of tax difficulties encountered by corporate taxpayers in complying with tax obligations under the self-assessment system. Design/methodology/approach: A two-phase exploratory mixed methods approach was employed. The first phase involves eight focus group interviews with 60 tax auditors from the Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia (IRBM) and the second phase adopts a mixed-mode survey among selected Malaysian corporate taxpayers. Thematic analysis and descriptive and inferential analysis were used to examine the qualitative and quantitative data in achieving the objective. Findings: Three dimensions of tax complexity encountered by corporate taxpayers were tax computations, record keeping and tax ambiguity. The first two complexity dimensions were faced largely by smaller companies. On the other hand, the least difficult tax-related areas were dealing with tax agents, submitting tax returns within the given time and dealing with the tax authority. Practical implications: In a tax policy context, this study enables international tax authorities in general, and Malaysian tax authority in particular, to have greater confidence in developing and administering tax laws and policies to maintain and/or increase the overall level of corporate tax compliance. Originality/value: Unlike prior studies that mainly used individual taxpayers or students as research participants, this study employed corporate tax auditors from the tax authority and corporate tax officers. Tax auditors and corporate taxpayers provide invaluable insights into the possible determinants of compliance variables. These insights are based on their practical experience in handling corporate tax audits and managing corporate tax matters, respectively. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

DOI: 10.1108/IJLMA-08-2013-0036

Haron, Razali. "Capital structure inconclusiveness: evidence from Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore." International Journal of Managerial Finance 10, no. 1 (2014): 23-38.


Purpose: The purpose of this paper of this study is to examine the possible factors contributing to the issue of inconclusiveness in capital structure studies. This study also attempts to provide logical explanations to the unresolved issue of inconsistencies in the relationship between factors identified and leverage in capital structure studies. Comparisons are also made between the emerging market and the developed market to see whether the findings are consistent with both market landscapes. Design/methodology/approach: This study employs two models in its methodology which are static and dynamic models to examine the effects of using different models in the study. The fixed effect model and partial adjustment model represent the static and dynamic models, respectively. The dynamic model is estimated using generalized method of moments. This study also uses six definitions of leverage to examine the impact of using different leverage definition in capital structure studies. To test the robustness of the findings comparison were made with past studies done by other researchers on developed markets. Findings: This study found that the use of different models (with the same leverage definition) and different leverage definitions (using the same model) give different results including signs. Inconsistencies were more obvious in the different leverage definitions (using the same model) compared to the use of different models (with the same leverage definition). There was also evidence that the findings were consistent with both the emerging and the developed markets as other studies on developed markets also report inconsistent results when using different models and different leverage definitions. Research limitations/implications: The sample chosen focussed only on firms in three emerging markets (Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore) thus it may not be sufficient for generalization. Originality/value: The issue of inconclusive results and findings in capital structure studies keeps recurring but no study has been done to further understand the issue. Using data from the selected countries, this paper attempts to fill this gap in the literature. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

DOI: 10.1108/IJMF-03-2012-0025

Seo, Myengkyo. "The White Cross in Muslim Java: Muslim–Christian Politics in the Javanese City of Salatiga." Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations ahead-of-print (2013): 1-11.


The interplay of religion and politics has been a consistent theme within the literature of political radicalism and religious violence in the contemporary Muslim world. Indonesia, which has long paraded its multi-layered history of religions, recently emerged as one of the main sites of Muslim-Christian violence. The religious volatility that has characterized Indonesia over the past decade has, however, left variations in vitality between faith-based organizations under-researched. In order to examine how the Christian churches undergird their institutions in the world's largest Muslim country, this article takes as its case study Salib Putih (White Cross) in the Javanese city of Salatiga and traces how a legal issue comes to transcend the boundary between religion and politics at local and national levels. © 2013 © 2013 University of Birmingham.

DOI: 10.1080/09596410.2013.804980

Lim, Sylvia SL, and Mahesh K. Nalla. "Attitudes of Private Security Officers in Singapore Toward Their Work Environment." Journal of Applied Security Research 9, no. 1 (2014): 41-56.


The present research addresses the nature of the security guard industry in Singapore. In 2009, Singapore had 273 guard companies employing nearly 29,000 personnel, a number nearly three times that of police officers. In this study, we outline the regulatory framework for the unarmed security guard industry followed by a preliminary assessment of the security personnel views on their job scope and empowerment, organizational attributes, and satisfaction level regarding pay and benefits. Data for this research is drawn from a survey conducted in 2010 of 251 security guards. The respondents found satisfaction and meaning in their work and experienced competent supervision though they appeared dissatisfied with pay and benefits. They also strongly believed that mandatory training was necessary for private security officers. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

DOI: 10.1080/19361610.2014.851579

Estrellado, Alicia F., and Jennifer MI Loh. "Factors Associated With Battered Filipino Women's Decision to Stay in or Leave an Abusive Relationship." Journal of interpersonal violence 29, no. 4 (2014): 575-592.


There is a dearth of research on battered Filipino women's stay or leave decision-making process. The present study interviewed 40 battered women in the Philippines to explore factors associated with their decisions to stay or leave their husbands or partners. Results revealed that (a) battered women's decision to stay was associated with intrapersonal and interpersonal factors such as personality characteristics, lack of personal resources, absence of social support, presence of children, length of relationship, and sociocultural factors and (b) battered women's decision to leave their abusive partners was associated with factors such as personality characteristics, personal resources, social support, nature of abuse, and spousal factors. Implications for research and practice were discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

DOI: 10.1177/0886260513505709

Griffin, Amy L., Bob Hall, and Andrew T. Ross. "The Australian counterinsurgency campaign in the Vietnam war: the ambush battle." Journal of Maps 10, no. 1 (2014): 61-64.


From 1966 to 1971 Australia deployed the 1st Australian Task Force (1ATF) to the Vietnam War. Australia's involvement in the war took the form of a protracted counterinsurgency campaign. Counterinsurgency campaigns often consist of thousands of seemingly unrelated minor combat incidents. Military historians using traditional techniques can find it difficult to make sense from this plethora of contacts that, individually, may seem inconsequential. Using the statistical mapping techniques we demonstrate here can tease out a comprehensible story from these thousands of otherwise apparently unrelated combat events. We tested the extent to which the Vietnamese were able to exploit the advantages of the ambush against 1ATF. Military commanders can use our methods to better understand the ebb and flow of their campaigns and to structure their operations to achieve the desired form of contact. © 2013 Amy L. Griffin.

DOI: 10.1080/17445647.2013.870095

Le, Hoang Cuong, Helen Cabalu, and Ruhul Salim. 2014. "Winners and losers in Vietnam equitisation programs." Journal of Policy Modeling no. 36 (1):172-184.


This article develops a computable general equilibrium model of Vietnam to assess the long-run likely effects of the country's equitisation programs on its national economic outcomes and industries. Equitisation is found to be pro-growth as reflected in its contribution to increasing real GDP growth rate in the long run. In terms of industrial output growth rates, the winners include electrical, steel and other manufacturing, while the losers include rice and paddy, and oil, gas and petroleum. To achieve better economic outcomes, the coverage of equitisation should be extended to include medium to large state-owned enterprises across all industries. © 2013.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpolmod.2013.10.012

Hayakawa, Kazunobu. 2014. "Impact of diagonal cumulation rule on FTA utilization: Evidence from bilateral and multilateral FTAs between Japan and Thailand." Journal of the Japanese and International Economies no. 32 (0):1-16.


In this paper, we empirically investigate the effect of diagonal cumulation on free trade agreement (FTA) utilization by exploring Thai exports to Japan under two kinds of FTA schemes. While the one scheme adopts bilateral cumulation, the other scheme does diagonal cumulation. Comparing trade under these two kinds of FTAs, we can examine the effect of diagonal cumulation without relying on not only the variation in cumulation rules across country pairs but also the variation across years. In short, our estimates do not suffer from biases from time-variant elements and country pair-specific elements. As a result, our estimates show around 4% trade creation effect of diagonal cumulation, which is much smaller than the estimates in the previous studies (around 15%). © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jjie.2013.12.005

Cameron, Jenny, Katherine Gibson, and Ann Hill. "Cultivating hybrid collectives: research methods for enacting community food economies in Australia and the Philippines." Local Environment 19, no. 1 (2014): 118-132.


Across the globe, groups are experimenting with initiatives to create alternatives to the dominant food system. What role might research play in helping to strengthen and multiply these initiatives? In this paper we discuss two research projects in Australia and the Philippines in which we have cultivated hybrid collectives of academic researchers, lay researchers and various non-human others with the intention of enacting community food economies. We feature three critical interactions in the "hybrid collective research method": gathering, which brings together those who share concerns about community food economies; reassembling, in which material gathered is deliberatively rebundled to amplify particular insights; and translating, by which reassembled ideas are taken up by other collectives so they may continue to "do work". We argue that in a climate-changing world, the hybrid collective research method fosters opportunities for a range of human and non-human participants to act in concert to build community food economies. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

DOI: 10.1080/13549839.2013.855892

Quintal, Vanessa, and Ian Phau. "Students' perceptions of an internationalised learning environment." Marketing Intelligence & Planning 32, no. 1 (2014): 89-106.


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore student perceptions of the internationalised learning environment across a particular university's home and offshore campuses. It addresses three research questions namely: what constitutes the internationalised learning environment for students? Can a university offer an internationalised learning environment that is equitable for students across its home and offshore campuses? And what differences exist in the internationalised learning environment for students in a university's home and offshore campuses? Design/methodology/approach: In total, 484 completed responses were collected from the university's six campuses in Australia, Singapore, Hong Kong and Malaysia. Findings: Findings suggested significant differences in the way students perceived of teaching reputation, context-specific curriculum, resources, student-support staff interaction and their attitude towards their university. Practical implications: These insights could help a university's teaching staff and administrators to focus on specific attributes in marketing the internationalised learning environments of each of its campuses. This could give the university better opportunity for improving the learning process and its outcomes for students. Originality/value: This paper sets out to define the parameters of the internationalised learning environment and conducts an audit of this environment from the student perspective. Findings suggested significant differences in the way students perceived of teaching reputation, context-specific curriculum, resources, student-support staff interaction and their attitude towards their university. In the market of fierce competition for international students, it is crucial that these positive attributes be part of the marketing messages in any promotion campaigns for universities. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

DOI: 10.1108/MIP-04-2013-0066

Soriano, Cheryll Ruth Reyes. "Constructing collectivity in diversity: online political mobilization of a national LGBT political party." Media, Culture & Society 36, no. 1 (2014): 20-36.


The internet has opened up a space for discussions of queer sexuality and the interconnectivity made possible by internet technologies enables the active exchange of queer ideologies across distant spaces that facilitate the formation of 'queer counterpublics'. But how do cyberqueer movements form a collectivity amid the instability of individual and collective identities and the vulnerabilities and controls posed by new technology mediation? Through the case study of Ladlad, a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) political party in the Philippines, this paper examines the role of online media in the construction of a queer movement. The article argues that the process of connectivity facilitated by online spaces creates nodes of identification, belonging, and support that symbolically form a collective site of resistance to sources of oppressive power for LGBTs. © The Author(s) 2013.

DOI: 10.1177/0163443713507812

Yindee, Cha-aim. "Appropriate Technology for Golden Rice Farm of Thailand." Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 5, no. 1 (2014): 587.


The research was qualitative approaches. The research design for qualitative research was In-Dept Interview by using Ethnographic research technique with 20 Thai stakeholders composing of local wisdom peoples, community leaders and farmers who live at Chao Praya River in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province, the Middle region of Thailand. The content from qualitative research was analyzed to construct the questionnaire for quantitative research. Factor analysis was used for determination the component factors. The objectives of this research were 1) to study methods and expertises of appropriate technology for golden rice farm from stakeholders composing of local wisdom peoples, community leaders and farmers, and 2) to analyze content of methods and expertises of appropriate technology for golden rice farm from stakeholders composing of local wisdom peoples, community leaders and farmers. The Interview results were used to construct items for factor analysis to identify the component of methods and expertises of appropriate technology for golden rice farm from stakeholders composing of local wisdom peoples, community leaders and farmers. There were 6 components were constructed from 50 items. The 6 components were Way of life in the past of farmers, Culture and belief of rice farming, Local wisdom of rice cultivation, Appropriate technology using in rice farming, Modern technology for living, and Modern technology for rice farming.

DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n1p587

Graham, Anne P, Renata A Phelps, Ha Thi Tuyet Nhung, and Richard Geeves. 2014. "Researching with children in Vietnam: cultural, methodological and ethical considerations." Qualitative Research no. 14 (1):37-60.


The involvement of children in research has gathered significant momentum following the almost universal ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the emergence of new theoretical interests that challenge conceptions of children as irrational, incompetent, vulnerable and unable to know and articulate what is in their own best interests. However, seeking the views of children and responding to what they have to say are heavily circumscribed by social and cultural norms and values that must be known and respected in order to ensure that the research is ethically and methodologically sound. This article reports on the experiences of a team of researchers undertaking a project that sought the views and perspectives of children in relation to learning and education in a rural province of Vietnam. It discusses the reflexive nature of such an endeavour that required a deep recognition of the influence of Confucian culture, particularly in relation to issues of who has authority to speak and on what matters, as well as detailed attention to children's existing experience of being consulted. © The Author(s) 2012.

DOI: 10.1177/1468794112455038

Szymańska-Matusiewicz, Grażyna. 2014. "The researcher as 'older sister', 'younger sister' and 'niece': playing the roles defined by the Vietnamese pronominal reference system." Qualitative Research no. 14 (1):95-111


The article considers various dimensions of researcher-informant relationships arising while leading research in Vietnam, which inevitably influence the fieldwork done among the Vietnamese. The specificity of the relationships between the anthropologist and the researched is caused by one of the most characteristic features of Vietnamese language - the complicated system of terms of address and reference, based on such factors as sex, age and social position of the interlocutors. Due to the relational nature of Vietnamese terms of address, speakers entering into interaction are forced to define their own role and its relation to the role of the interlocutor. Adopting the interaction strategy imposed by the features of Vietnamese language brings twofold methodological implications. On one hand, the anthropologist experiences serious limitations of her ability to control the research situation, while on the other hand, she gains the opportunity to approximate the experience of being in a particular role: that of a woman subordinated to a man, a 'niece' subordinated to an elderly aunt or an 'older sister' whose status is higher than a younger man's. © The Author(s) 2012.

DOI: 10.1177/1468794112465636

Kumar, Sameer, and JariahMohd Jan. 2014. "Research collaboration networks of two OIC nations: comparative study between Turkey and Malaysia in the field of 'Energy Fuels', 2009–2011." Scientometrics no. 98 (1):387-414


With the world in the midst of an energy crisis, recent research has placed considerable emphasis on harnessing renewable and sustainable energy while efficiently using fossil fuels. Researchers create and sustain academic societies as a result of social interactions. This study takes a social network perspective to understand researchers' associations using two Organisation of Islamic Co-operation nations, Turkey and Malaysia, in the fast-developing field of 'Energy Fuels'. The study found both similarities and differences in the scholarly networks of these two countries. The mean distance between the authors in the Turkey and Malaysia networks was 8.4 and 6.5, respectively, confirming the small world nature of these networks. The popularity, position, and prestige of the authors in the network, as determined through centrality measures, had a statistically significant effect on research performance. These measures, however, were far more correlated with the research performance of the authors in the Malaysia network than in the Turkey network. PageRank centrality was found to be the most efficient topological measure when it came to correlation with research performance. We used authors' 'degree' to reach to the 'core' ('Deg-Core') of the network (in contrast to the K-Core method), which was found to capture more productive authors. A method to detect academic communities of productive authors by extracting motifs (large cliques) from the network is suggested. Finally, we visualize the cognitive structure of both countries using a 2-mode network representing research focus areas (RFAs) and prominent authors working in these RFAs. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

DOI: 10.1007/s11192-013-1059-8

Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani, Peter McDonald, Anna Reimondos, Ariane Utomo, and Terence H. Hull. 2013. "Do primary students understand how pregnancy can occur? A comparison of students in Jakarta, West Java, West Nusa Tenggara and South Sulawesi, Indonesia." Sex Education no. 14 (1):95-109.


In Indonesian primary schools, sex education is implicitly integrated into various related subjects, such as science, biology, social studies and religion. The technical facts of ovulation and sperm are mentioned in biology, although little or no connection is made between this process and sexual intercourse. By the end of primary school, therefore, children are likely to have a poor understanding of how pregnancy can occur. Given that young girls at this age have already experienced or will soon experience menarche, and given the increasing trend towards delaying the age at marriage in Indonesian society, this lack of knowledge places young people at risk of various negative consequences, including unwanted pregnancy. In this paper, we investigate the level of understanding regarding human reproduction amongst 1762 students attending the last year of primary school, distributed across 32 different schools in Indonesia. Despite the fact that all schools follow a national curriculum, our results reveal widespread variability in the students' comprehension of how pregnancy can occur. In particular, students attending Islamic religious schools and those in less developed provinces of Indonesia appear to have a much poorer understanding of the link between sexual intercourse and conception. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

DOI: 10.1080/14681811.2013.833503

Noor, NorainiM, AnjliDoshi Gandhi, Ismahalil Ishak, and Saodah Wok. 2014. "Development of Indicators for Family Well-Being in Malaysia." Social Indicators Research no. 115 (1):279-318.


This study was carried out to develop a set of indicators for measuring and reporting the state of family well-being in Malaysia, and subsequently, to produce an Index of Family Well-Being. To build the set of indicators, domains of family well-being and relevant indicators were identified from past studies. Focus group discussions with families, professional groups and NGOs helped to refine the indicators prior to the main study. Using a stratified random sampling design, 2,808 households were identified (a parent and a child aged at least 13 years), making a total sample of 5,616 respondents. Results indicated ten key indicators that can predict family well-being-resiliency, safety, savings, healthy lifestyle, time with family, work-family balance, importance of religion, number of bedrooms at home, debt and child care-supporting the notion of family well-being being multi-dimensional and interconnected. On the basis of the results, a model of family well-being was hypothesized. This model was used to guide the development of the Index of Family Well-being. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to determine the fit of the model to data. Five domains of family well-being were identified-family relationships, economic situation, health and safety, community relationship and religion/spirituality. The Index of Family Well-Being was calculated using the equal weighting strategy to each of these five domains. This index showed that the current family well-being of Malaysians is relatively high at 7.95 (SD = 1.38) on a 0-10 Likert response format. The findings suggest that family well-being is multifaceted, made up not only of the immediate family relationships and health and safety of its members, but include having adequate income to meet the demands of a minimum standard of living. Currently, the Index that is developed is only in the form of a numerical value reflecting the state of family well-being, but in future, it can be used to track changes in the family from time to time. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

DOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0219-1

Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai, Melanie Abas, Kanchana Tangchonlatip, and Sureeporn Punpuing. 2014. "The effect of asset-based wealth inequality on problem drinking among rural Thai elders: A prospective population-based cohort study." Social Science & Medicine no. 100:107-114. d


Evidence on the link between income inequality and alcohol-related problems is scarce, inconclusive and dominated by studies from the developed world. The use of income as a proxy measure for wealth is also questionable, particularly in developing countries. The goal of the present study is to explore the contextual influence of asset-based wealth inequality on problem drinking among Thai older adults. A population-based cohort study with a one-year follow-up was nested in a Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) of 100 villages in western Thailand. Data were drawn from a random sample of 1104 older residents, aged 60 or over (one per household) drawn from all 100 villages, of whom 982 (89%) provided problem drinking data at follow-up. The primary outcome measure was a validated Thai version of the Alcohol-Used Disorder Identification Test for problem drinking. Living in areas of high wealth inequality was prospectively associated with a greater risk for problem drinking among older people (adjusted odds ratio 2.30, 95% confidence intervals 1.02-5.22), after adjusting for individual-level and village-level factors. A rise in wealth inequality over the year was also independently associated with an increased risk of problem drinking (adjusted odds ratio 2.89, 95% confidence intervals 1.24-6.65). The associations were not explained by the social capital, status anxiety or psychosocial stress variables. The data suggest that wealth inequality and an increase in inequality across time lead to a greater risk of problem drinking. Efforts should be directed towards reducing gaps and preventing large jumps in inequality in the communities. Further research should investigate the effect of asset-based inequality on various health risk behaviors and its specific mediating pathways. © 2013 The Authors.

DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.09.025

Pitluck, Aaron Z. "Watching foreigners: how counterparties enable herds, crowds, and generate liquidity in financial markets." Socio-Economic Review 12, no. 1 (2014): 5-31.


This article provides a new view on the old problem of herding in the global south by foreign portfolio investors. It advocates a liquidity perspective that problematizes the capacity for a herd to form because of the absence of sufficient counterparties willing to trade. Drawing on ethnographic interviews with local professional investors in Malaysia (a substantively and theoretically important stock market) the findings are non-intuitive relative to the common-sense expectations of the information asymmetry and identity-based herding literatures. Although locals watch their foreign competitors closely, and therefore could imitate their trades, these small, local finance firms find few reasons to imitate these powerful international actors. Instead, locals enable crowds of foreigners because they are willing to be counterparties even when they perceive the foreigner's trade as savvy, highly skilled or informed. The conclusion explores implications for herding, global capital flows and social structures that may generate liquidity in business-to-business markets. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press and the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1093/ser/mwt013

Goh, Daniel P.S. 2014. "Walking the Global City: The Politics of Rhythm and Memory in Singapore." Space and Culture no. 17 (1):16-28


This article discusses the politics of rhythm and memory surrounding urban walking in Singapore. In recent years, the developmental state has organized programs to encourage ways to walk the global city it has built in the embrace of transnational capital. In the heritage trails in the city center and the inaugural Singapore Biennale of international art, which mapped the heritage trails, the state has appropriated historical space to synchronize the contradictory rhythms of the nation and globalization to cultivate cosmopolitan subjects. I show that the Biennale artists tried to subvert the state discourse on nation and heritage but only introduced alternative spectacles enhancing the visuality of walking the global city. Finally, I look at artist Amanda Heng's work, which by tackling the very act of walking, is a critical intervention into the state's appropriation of lifeworld rhythms and memories, bringing into question the spatial production of the global city. © The Author(s) 2013.

DOI: 10.1177/1206331212451686

Teo, Tang Wee, and Kaijie Justin Ke. 2014. "Challenges in STEM Teaching: Implication for Preservice and Inservice Teacher Education Program." Theory Into Practice no. 53 (1):18-24.


As former and current STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) school teachers in Singapore, we explore the challenges we both experienced while teaching at different STEM schools. Through this article, we make a case for the teacher preparation programs locally and around the world to give more attention to a changing education landscape with emerging specialized STEM schools. Nonetheless, even though specialized STEM teacher preparation is needed, we also caution that having such a specialized program may limit teachers' horizontal transition to mainstream schools and awareness of the contextualized needs of more diverse learners. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

DOI: 10.1080/00405841.2014.862116

Tan, Aik-Ling, and Woon Foong Leong. 2014. "Mapping Curriculum Innovation in STEM Schools to Assessment Requirements: Tensions and Dilemmas." Theory Into Practice no. 53 (1):11-17


Specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) schools create niche areas in an attempt to attract the best students, establish the school status, and justify their privilege to valuable resources. One Singapore STEM school does this in applied science learning to differentiate its curriculum from the national prescribed curriculum. Reflecting on the issues of curriculum innovation from the perspective of a teacher and head of department in this school, the second author discusses the constraints in curriculum innovation in a specialized school context embedded within a larger system of the national curriculum. We reflect on her experiences in designing, planning, writing, and implementing applied science courses and the challenges in having to simultaneously address the standardized assessment guidelines. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

DOI: 10.1080/00405841.2014.862113

Talaue, Frederick Toralballa. 2014. "Social Equity and Access to a Philippine STEM School." Theory Into Practice no. 53 (1):33-40


Like most developing countries in the world, there is a huge gap in opportunities to access quality science education between students from the high- and low-socioeconomic strata of Philippine society. In establishing its own science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high school, despite limited public funding in 1964, the government embarked on a hopeful project for continuously building up its scientific and technological work force to support modern economic development. The initial focus on elite talent development, however, eventually had to give way to legislative reforms that address issues of social equity. Greater accessibility for scholarships by underprivileged students in the provinces was accomplished, first, through the regionalization of its admission system and then, later, through its transformation into a network of science high schools across the nation. In my home country, sustaining equitable access to STEM education also means enhancing school participation through partnerships with community constituents and the private sector.



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