Feb 17, 2014

Academic Articles in 3rd week of Feb 2014

The 3rd weekly update of academic articles in Feb 2014 are here:

Ananta, Aris. 2014. A New Classification of Indonesia’s Ethnic Groups (Based on the 2010 Population Census). ISEAS Working Paper #1,
For the first time since achieving independence in 1945, data on Indonesia’s ethnicity was collected in the 2000 Population Census. The chance to understand ethnicity in Indonesia was further enhanced with the availability of the 2010 census which includes a very rich and complicated ethnic data set. The Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS, 2011) made a key contribution by introducing an initial classification of ethnicity into 31 groups which BPS has made available online under the title of Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama, dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia: Hasil Sensus Penduduk Indonesia 2010 [Citizenship, Ethnicity, Religion, and Language Spoken of Indonesian Population: Results of 2010 Population Census]. 1 The BPS classification, hereafter referred to as ‘Initial Classification’ (IC), is a simple reference and provides a long list of ethnic categories that would not be effective unless it is re-classified into simpler and more manageable groups. Moreover, the coded data on ethnicity in the census is still very raw and not easily read and analyzed properly. In short, the IC is in need of modification for statistical analysis of the data to be more meaningful, especially at the provincial and district levels.
This paper’s main aim is to create a new classification, ‘New Classification’ (NC), which expands and rearranges the IC’s ethnic and sub-ethnic group categories. To facilitate easy reference, the results are presented along with their codes. The NC lists members of each group so that any user of ethnicity statistics can modify the classification. It should be noted that while the names of the ethnic groups are in English, the names of response categories remain in the Indonesian language.
The NC thus provides a critical foundation for future studies on ethnicity in Indonesia, especially those using the 2010 Indonesia population census data. It should also help to improve the quality of data collection and coding on ethnicity in future censuses/surveys, including the upcoming 2015 population intercensal survey (Supas). Another feature of the NC is that it is presented in a way that allows modifications.

Montesano, Michael J. 2014. What is to Come in Thailand? ISEAS Perspective 2014 (07),
http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/ISEAS_Perspective_2014_07-What_is_to_Come_in_Thailand.pdf - The elections of 2 February 2014 have deepened Thailand’s crisis, as efforts to mount a “judicial coup” against the Yinglak government gather pace.
- Yinglak’s ouster would risk provoking a violent backlash on the part of her supporters.
- In a longer-term perspective, the Thai crisis is about fundamental changes in Thailand’s social and political order and about uncertainty concerning the future of the monarchy.
- Failure to accommodate recent social and political changes is not a viable option for the Thai political system.
- Worries over the future of the monarchy reflect a lack of imagination among leading royalists.

Hayakawa, Kazunobu. 2014. Firm-level Impacts of Natural Disasters on Production Networks: Evidence from a Flood in Thailand. IDE Discussion Papers No.445,
In this paper, we explore the firm-level impacts of flooding in Thailand in 2011, specifically those on the procurement patterns at Japanese affiliates in Thailand. Our findings are as follow. First, the damaged small firms are more likely to lower their local procurement share, particularly the share of procurement from other Japanese-owned firms in Thailand. Second, damaged young firms and damaged old firms are more likely to raise the shares of imports from Japan and China, respectively. Third, there are no impacts on imports from ASEAN and other countries. These findings are useful for uncovering how multinational firms adjust their production networks before and after natural disasters.

Nguyen, Tu Phuong. 2014. "Rethinking State-Society Relations in Vietnam: The Case of Business Associations in Ho Chi Minh City." Asian Studies Review no. 38 (1):87-106.
doi: 10.1080/10357823.2013.872598.
The growing private sector in the post-reform Vietnamese economy and its new forms of mobilisation have led to newly emergent social forces that have shaped internal state agendas and political deliberations. With a view to exploring the nature of institutional change in Vietnam, I argue that business associations have played a crucial intermediary role between the state and the private sector over past decades. These associations and the spaces of governance that they constitute are neither characteristic of autonomous actors as suggested by liberal theory nor a form of state corporatism. This paper adopts the “state-in-society” approach, which contends that the state and society should be considered through new governance spaces within the state. These spaces create institutional mechanisms for interaction between the government and business, and provide a framework for deliberative engagement between state and non-state actors. This framework will be tested through an examination of associations of small and medium enterprises in Ho Chi Minh City and their connections to the city authorities. I argue that business associations will be accommodated by the state and will coalesce with existing bureaucratic interests. This proposition contributes to the new research agenda that applies the state-in-society approach to post-socialist institutions.

Aung, Tin, Ethi Paw, Nyo Me Aye, and Willi McFarland. "Coverage of HIV Prevention Services for Female Sex Workers in Seven Cities of Myanmar." AIDS and Behavior 18, no. 1 (2014): 37-41.
DOI: 10.1007/s10461-013-0523-z
Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88-99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind others in coverage of most programs. Such data are necessary for planning, targeting, and evaluating the prevention response for this key population disproportionately affected by HIV. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Yuntadilok, Nuntawun, Rattana Timmuang, Somkid Timsard, ThomasE Guadamuz, Elsa Heylen, Jeffrey Mandel, and MariaL Ekstrand. 2014. "Eroding Gains in Safe Sex Behavior, HIV/AIDS Knowledge, and Risk Perceptions Among Royal Thai Navy Conscripts After 28 Years of the AIDS Epidemic in Thailand." AIDS and Behavior no. 18 (1):42-49
DOI: 10.1007/s10461-013-0522-0
Despite extensive early prevention efforts, recent surveys suggest that sexual risk taking may again be on the rise in Thailand. The present cross-sectional study surveyed 3,299 recruits in the Thai Navy in 2010, to examine their rates and correlates of consistent condom use. Most participants were aged 21-22 years, unmarried, and had a secondary education. Almost half were employed in labor/agriculture. Only 17 % of sexually experienced recruits were consistent condom users, and 53 % reported multiple sex partners in the past 3 months. In multiple logistic regression, residence in the Northeast (AOR 1.47), age (AOR 1.43), being single (AOR 2.13), non-MSM status (AOR 1.41), voluntary testing (AOR 1.24), and condom use at first sex (AOR 4.29) were significantly associated with consistent condom use. These findings suggest gaps in Thailand's condom campaign targeting both sexually experienced and inexperienced youth. Interventions targeting naval recruits may benefit from including sex education in the training curriculum, building drillmasters' capacities to facilitate sex education/counseling, and creating a supportive environment with better access to condoms. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Petersen, Elizabeth H., Tran Dinh Luan, Dam Thi My Chinh, Vu Anh Tuan, Tran Quoc Binh, Le Van Truc, and Brett D. Glencross. "Bioeconomics of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, culture in Vietnam." Aquaculture Economics & Management 18, no. 1 (2014): 28-44.
DOI: 10.1080/13657305.2014.855953
This article presents an analysis of the profitability and intensity of cobia culture by small-scale farmers in Vietnam, especially focusing on current feeding practices and perceptions regarding adoption of manufactured diets. Bioeconomic modelling is used so the interactions between biological and economic processes can be analyzed. Overall, it is found that cobia farming is moderately to highly profitable when compared to other aquaculture species in Vietnam. Culture practices and the level of intensity of cobia farming differ significantly across Vietnam. Initial stocking density, total number of fish stocked, number and size of cages, and quantity of feed used are all higher in southern Vietnam than the north. The higher level of intensification in the south leads to significantly higher total costs, productivity and profitability. The dominant cost source is feed, which is predominantly low-value fish. To capture the environmental and potential economic benefits of adopting pelleted diets, then negative farmer perceptions regarding relatively slow growth rates, and lack of availability compared with low-value fish need to be overcome. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Sinh, Le Xuan, Hap Navy, and Robert S. Pomeroy. "Value Chain of Snakehead Fish in the Lower Mekong Basin of Cambodia and Vietnam." Aquaculture Economics & Management 18, no. 1 (2014): 76-96.
DOI: 10.1080/13657305.2014.855956
Snakehead fish are the most preferred fish species for food in Cambodia and Vietnam, and are consumed in both fresh and processed forms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the value chains of captured and cultured snakeheads in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB). The important actors involved in the value chain of snakeheads in the LMB of Cambodia and Vietnam were fishers, fish farmers, wholesalers, retailers, and processors. The value chain of wild captured snakeheads in Cambodia was focused on 11 marketing channels, and for cultured snakeheads in Vietnam, 10 market channels. The distribution of benefits among the chain actors was unequal, with the highest proportion of profit going to wholesalers in Cambodia and collectors in Vietnam. In order to develop the value chain of snakehead for the long-term in the LMB, appropriate plans must be prepared for each country in association with better management and protection of natural aquatic resources. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Sidel, John T. 2012. "Economic foundations of subnational authoritarianism: insights and evidence from qualitative and quantitative research." Democratization no. 21 (1):161-184.
DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2012.725725
A growing body of subnational comparative research on democracy has focused attention on 'subnational authoritarianism', in tandem with increasing interest in local politics across the developing world. Unsurprisingly, this evolving field of study has been characterized by a diversity - if not a dichotomy - of approaches, with quantitative and qualitative research proceeding along parallel and sometimes intersecting tracks. But scholars working in diverse contexts and with diverging approaches have begun to converge on a set of explanations for the patterns of variance observed in subnational authoritarianism within and across national settings. Drawing on studies of Russia, the United States, southern Italy, Argentina and West Africa, this article shows how scholarship has identified the underlying economic foundations of subnational authoritarianism. Combining the findings of recent qualitative and quantitative studies with the author's own research in the Philippines, this article spells out a set of hypotheses which may help to explain patterns of variance in subnational authoritarianism. Variance in subnational authoritarianism, it is suggested, stems from varying local economic conditions and possibilities for accumulation and maintenance of control over local economies. Further 'mapping' of subnational authoritarianism thus requires local fieldwork to complement the strengths - and overcome the limitations - of quantitative research. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Barr, Michael D. 2012. "The bonsai under the banyan tree: democracy and democratisation in Singapore." Democratization no. 21 (1):29-48.
DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2012.706606
In 2011 Singapore held its parliamentary general election. The ballot was not rigged and no candidates suffered physical intimidation, but there was no doubt that the government would be returned with an overwhelming majority and no one pretends that the opposition was given a fair chance. The regime has built a rationale and an infrastructure that legitimizes and perpetuates itself, and makes it difficult for an opposition to do more than survive. This article unpacks this rationale and the system it legitimizes. It argues that recent developments herald a significant set of changes to the dynamics of Singaporean politics and governance, but that these changes stop well short of any short or medium-term likelihood of democratic transformation. The Singapore experience suggests that an electorally legitimized authoritarian regime can perpetuate itself in the long term, provided it delivers public goods to the population and is assiduous in responding to complaints. It also suggests that a regime that has enjoyed long-term success is likely to have cultivated a constituency and an opposition that is a reflection of itself, implying that even if the particular ruling party should fall, it will most likely be replaced by an administration with values that are recognisably similar. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Ocampo, Lanndon A., and Eppie Estanislao–Clark. "Developing a Framework for Sustainable Manufacturing Strategies Selection." DLSU Business & Economics Review 23, no. 2 (2014). pp. 115-131. 
Manufacturing organizations adopt sustainability manufacturing in their attempt to address the triple-bottomline (TBL): environmental stewardship, economic growth, and social well-being. This study was conducted in order to characterize the programs adopted by a manufacturing firm with respect to the TBL and in the end, recommend a framework that could be utilized by decision-makers in the firm as they start to pursue a more sustainable strategy. This paper utilized the case study of a prime multinational semiconductor firm that promotes sustainability among their corporate initiatives.The semiconductor industry was chosen because of its prominence in sustainability efforts worldwide. Weaknesses of the current practices were found to be the reactive position of the firm to external drivers due to lack of long-term agenda for sustainability, the lack of reinforcement of social strategies on each other, the fragmented positions of current sustainability strategies along the sustainability "sphere", and the lack of understanding regarding the embedded interrelationships and interdependencies of sustainable manufacturing strategies. A framework is proposed,which captures the influence of internal and external drivers in adopting sustainable manufacturing strategies to address the triple-bottom line. The framework also depicts the influence that external drivers bear on internal ones. This framework could guide decision-makers on sustainable manufacturing strategies selection considering a more holistic approach. © 2014 by De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.

Dacuycuy, Lawrence B., and Dickson A. Lim. "Human Capital and Savings in an OLG Economy with Migration Possibilities: A Theoretical Note." DLSU Business & Economics Review 23, no. 2 (2014). pp. 132-135. 
In a theoretical study by Stark, Helmenstein, and Prskawetz (1998), the presence of migration possibilities may increase human capital formation. This note verifies the robustness of the said result by introducing savings as a choice variable in an overlapping generations model with migration possibilities. Results indicate that human capital formation will still increase provided that certain technical conditions are met. © 2014 by De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.

Poblador, Niceto S. "The Strategy Dilemma: Why Big Business Moves Seldom Pan Out as Planned." DLSU Business & Economics Review 23, no. 2 (2014). pp. 136-144. 
This article looks at the complex dynamics that underlie organizational change and attempts to explain why, under present uncertain environmental conditions, it is not possible to determine in advance the results of strategic moves made by businesses and other types of organizations. It discusses an alternative approach to strategy in today's world of business and explores the practical applications of experimental methods to the management of change in today's highly complex, extensively interconnected, and knowledge-driven world. © 2014 by De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.

Majuca, Ruperto P. "An Analysis of the Structure and Dynamics of the Philippine Macroeconomy: Results from a DSGE-Based Estimation." DLSU Business & Economics Review 23, no. 2 (2014). pp. 1-47. 
I use Bayesian methods to estimate a medium-scale closed economy dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model for the Philippine economy. Bayesian model selection techniques indicate that among the frictions introduced in the model, the investment adjustment costs, habit formation, and the price and wage rigidity features are important in capturing the dynamics of the data, while the variable capital utilization, fixed costs, and the price and wage indexation features are not important. I find that the Philippine macroeconomy is characterized by more instability than the U.S. economy. An analysis of the several subperiods in Philippine economic history also reveals some quantitative evidence that risk aversion increases during crisis periods. Also, I find that the inflation targeting (IT) era is associated with a more stable economy: the standard deviations of the technology shock, the risk-premium shock, and the investment-specific technology shock have significantly lower variability than the pre-IT era. Shock decomposition analysis also reveals that BSP's conduct of monetary policy appears to be more procyclical than countercyclical, for example, during the recent global financial and economic crisis. © 2014 by De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.

Castillo, Jesus Carlos Exequiel D., and Krista Danielle S. Yu. "Liberalizing the Philippine Mining Industry: A CGE approach into analyzing its sectoral impacts on the economy." DLSU Business & Economics Review 23, no. 2 (2014). pp. 48-64. 
The mining industry in the Philippines was once a promising venture that could contribute to the growth of output in the economy. Numerous legislations in support of mining in the Philippines that were passed through the years have proven ineffective in spurring development in the industry. Despite the spotted history of mining in the Philippines, the rising prices of precious metals in the world would seem that mining as a venue for output is as lustrous as ever. Due to the economic downturn in the mid 2000s, the markets turned their attention back to heavy investments in metals, causing most of them to hit their all-time highs. Unfortunately, mining in the Philippines is a noted underperformer during the periods of growth, which can be attributed to the fact that it is a young industry but with many concerns tied to it as well. Most of the concerns lie within the protection of the environment. The ISO guidelines to mining led many countries into levying taxes that would attribute to pollution and the Philippines is no exception. By using the 1994 input-output table for the Philippines and the Computable General Equilibrium model developed by Cororaton (2003), this study finds that the Mining Act of 1995 has negative welfare implications on households and different sectors. The government should reconsider some parts of the Mining Act of 1995, specifically the liberalization of investing in the industry; more particularly, allowing foreign-owned corporations to claim mineral rights in the country. Financial institutions may design instruments that will cater to the specific needs of the potential domestic investors. Mining firms, together with the government, should implement programs for the communities near areas with mineral exploration activities and other corporate social responsibility programs to spur economic development that is the ultimate goal of our country. © 2014 by De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.

Rufino, Cesar C. "Martingales in Floating ASEAN+ 3 Currencies." DLSU Business & Economics Review 23, no. 2 (2014). pp. 65-79. 
The martingale properties of the floating exchange rates of the ASEAN+3 region are analyzed in this study using contemporary (2000 to 2012) weekly data of inter-bank call rates. The main goal of the analysis is to see if informational efficiency is a feature floating (managed or independently floating) currencies in this coalition of countries still possess despite the current credit crisis and other economic shocks during the period. Employing relevant state-of-the-art econometric techniques, the study sets to empirically determine the presence of two important ingredients of informationally efficient market-the existence of the unit root component and the presence of uncorrelated increments within each exchange rate series. To address the unit root problem, a battery of tests catering to heterogeneous panel data is used while variance ratio tests robust to the occurrence of conditional volatilities are implemented. While the stylized facts and simple correlation analysis of the currencies and their one week holding period returns give initial evidence of market efficiencies, the various analytical tests and procedures implemented in the study provide compelling evidence on the existence of martingale properties of the FX series. Both the panel unit root and variance ratio tests uphold the validity of the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) in the participating currencies. The implication of this result is that despite the occurrence of perturbations due to economic shocks (e.g. the current credit crisis) the currencies of the region, which are currently pursuing unification, are riding the crises and exhibit informational efficiency. This may be considered a testament to the success of the on-going interregional monetary coordination and other multilateral initiatives of countries within the region aimed at crisis prevention and monetary policy synchronization. © 2014 by De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.

Abrigo, Michael Ralph M., Rouselle F. Lavado, Erniel B. Barrios, and Brian C. Gozun. "Estimating the Efficiency of Philippine Public High Schools Using Spatio-Temporal Stochastic Frontier Analysis." DLSU Business & Economics Review 23, no. 2 (2014). pp. 80-87. 
This paper proposes a method for modeling production function of education using a stochastic frontier model with spatial temporal terms. Using a unique dataset that combines school achievement scores with school characteristics from 2005-2008, the efficiency of 4,900 public high schools in the Philippines in converting school inputs into test scores was estimated. Results show that the average inefficiency is at 41% and that there is a significant positive spatial externality in efficiency, which means that efficiency in one school can spill over to its neighbors. The model was found to be robust to various environmental variables included in the estimation. The results of the study will be important to guide policy makers in allocating limited resources to public schools. © 2014 by De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.

Lupdag–Padama, Editha A., John Paolo R. Rivera, Rhory C. Fernandez–Go, Krista Danielle S. Yu, Francesca Dianne B. Solis, and Rosanina A. Sayoc. "An Approximation of the Internal Rate of Return of Investment in Selected Undergraduate Degree Programs." DLSU Business & Economics Review 23, no. 2 (2014). pp. 88-114. 
The situation of a typical Filipino household, overseas employment, and the culture of migration are deemed as determinants for investing in higher education such as in the specialized fields of accountancy, education science and teacher training, engineering, and nursing. We examine both local and international labor demand for accountants, teachers, engineers, and nurses as well as its underlying implications on the exodus of professionals. As such, the determination of the internal rate of return to investment is of crucial importance to households to fully maximize educational opportunities and for the government and other institutions to confront this globally-changing situation. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis, we compute for the internal rates of return of investment of the mentioned degree programs. Results have shown that the relatively high rates of return are incentives to practice profession abroad despite various delays. © 2014 by De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines.

Polimeni, John M., Raluca I. Iorgulescu, and Ray Chandrasekara. 2014. "Trans-border public health vulnerability and hydroelectric projects: The case of Yali Falls Dam." Ecological Economics no. 98 (0):81-89.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.12.013
The need for energy due to economic and population pressure has resulted in a great expansion of hydroelectric dam projects around the world, especially in Asia. These hydroelectric projects have resulted in considerable environmental, economic, and social damage. Typically, the economic development-environmental degradation dynamic has been examined. However, rarely has the economic development, environmental degradation, public health connection been made. This paper, using primary data collected from household surveys, completes the economic, environment, public health circle by examining how economic and environmental changes from the Yali Falls dam in Vietnam has impacted the health of people living in three remote villages in Cambodia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Cameron, Lisa, and Shah Manisha. 2014. "Can Mistargeting Destroy Social Capital and Stimulate Crime? Evidence from a Cash Transfer Program in Indonesia." Economic Development & Cultural Change no. 62 (2):381-415.
DOI: 10.1086/674102
The article explores the impact of a large-scale, nationwide anti-poverty program in Indonesia that reportedly caused considerable social disharmony. There is ample support in the sociology and criminology literature that declines in social capital are associated with increases in crime. For example, Putnam (2000) argues that the presence or absence of networks of generalized trust and reciprocity within communities are an important determinant of a community's resilience or susceptibility to crime. Related theories predict that where there is not a strong moral order and people behave egoistically and are willing to exploit others, social trust declines and crime flourishes. Of the 160 community leaders surveyed, 40% said that the BLT caused problems in their village. Twenty-nine percent of households said it caused anger toward community and village heads, 8% said it caused anger toward the government, and 8% said it caused anger toward BLT recipients. Another possible route via which a targeted transfer program could have an impact on crime is its impact on inequality.

Nagy, Stephen Robert. "Politics of multiculturalism in East Asia: Reinterpreting multiculturalism." Ethnicities 14, no. 1 (2014): 160-176.
DOI: 10.1177/1468796813498078
Multiculturalism in the Northeastern Asian states of Japan, South Korea, China and Taiwan as well as the members of ASEAN are interesting case studies in how states manage migration policy and create migrant policy. Examining their migration practices, we can understand East Asian perspectives on multiculturalism employing traditional migration frameworks revolving around control and management of entry of migrants, state-building and ethnocentric rationale for/or against pro-migrant policies. This review article will delineate how different states in the region construct migrant policies in line with their state's interests, which include domestic, regional and international interests by employing the below nine articles. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

Fajardo, Kale Bantigue. "Queering and Transing the Great Lakes Filipino/a Tomboy Masculinities and Manhoods across Waters." GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 20, no. 1-2 (2014): 115-140.
DOI: 10.1215/10642684-2370387
In "Queering and Transing the Great Lakes: Filipino/a Tomboy Masculinities and Manhoods across Waters," I use a Filipino/a queer trans (transnational/transgender/transwaters) and postcolonial approach to examine Nice Rodriguez's semiautobiographical fiction in his/her collection of short stories, Throw It to the River (1993). Based in Toronto, Canada (on Lake Ontario), from 1988 to 2004, Rodriguez, a self-identified Filipino/a tomboy writer, addresses themes of migration, immigration, displacement, and class/poverty; the US-Marcos dictatorship; queer desire, love, sexuality; and tomboy masculinities and manhoods in his/her stories. By critically reading Rodriguez's stories, in this essay, I also theorize how the Great Lakes or Great Lakes region functions as a transnational water-based border zone or crosscurrents space in the "(Upper) Midwest" that links Filipino sites in the diaspora such as Duluth, Minnesota, and Toronto, as well as how these waters also connect with other waterscapes in the Philippines such as the Pasig River and Manila Bay. © 2014 by Duke University Press.

Padawangi, Rita. "Reform, resistance and empowerment: constructing the public city from the grassroots in Jakarta, Indonesia." International Development Planning Review 36, no. 1 (2014): 33-50.
DOI: 10.3828/idpr.2014.3
The spectacle of demonstrations in urban streets and squares often captures more attention than the actual changes that follow. How do social movements construct public spaces that are coherent with the public sphere? What kind of physical spaces are needed to sustain spaces of resistance? This paper revisits Castells' city and the grassroots, along with the notions of the right to the city and alternative development. Three cases in Jakarta will be featured to demonstrate how grassroots activism in the city transforms along with urban spaces. The activists' retreat from protests to micro-activities within communities such as neighbourhood improvements and socio-economic training reflects the consciousness to improve material conditions, without which the reform would be incomplete. Spaces of resistance require continuous grassroots activism that directly impacts the human condition, beyond post-revolution abstract notions of social and political reform.

Pandi, Asha Rathina. "Insurgent space in Malaysia: Hindraf movement, new media and minority Indians." International Development Planning Review 36, no. 1 (2014): 73-90.
DOI: 10.3828/idpr.2014.5
Insurgent space is a prerequisite for a public city to accommodate a wide variety of social actions and activities. Based on content analysis of blogs and interviews with bloggers, the discussion in this article presents the interplay between urban space and minority politics in the technological context in Malaysia. The fact that the government failed to uplift the status of the Indians, coupled with issues relating to religiosity, outraged the Hindu Rights Action Force (Hindraf) advocacy group, which was empowered by new media to organise itself for action, resulting in the successful mobilisation of a crowd of 30,000 people on the streets of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on 25 November 2007. The outcome of this rally reflects the potential that urban space can be (re)claimed, appropriated and put to use (via links to cyberspace) for political action, even in a 'semi-democracy' like Malaysia, when sufficient conditions, such as grievances, identity politics, organisational forms and collective consciousness among supporters, exist. Inherent in these actions is a particular history of people and place that provides the broader narrative for understanding why discontents arose and were manifest by shifting from cyber-activism to the street marches in Malaysia. This article analyses the Hindraf movement's challenges to government with a view toward shedding light on the interplay between insurgency, social media and reclaiming the public city in a non-Western setting and with regard to a minority population in Malaysia.

Weiss, Meredith L. "New media, new activism: trends and trajectories in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia." International Development Planning Review 36, no. 1 (2014): 91-109.
DOI: 10.3828/idpr.2014.6
Cyberspace offers the promise of platforms for free engagement, particularly where the public sphere is constrained or controlled. Comparing the experiences of Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia - states with relatively high levels of Internet penetration, but quite different media and political regimes - helps to disentangle the effects, potential and limitations of new media as both tools and modes of contemporary socio-political activism. Specifically, I explore how the creation and use of cyberspace complements or contests physical public space as a terrain for mobilisation. While 'new media' do free up access to information and reshape political trajectories, impactful activism still requires mobilisation beyond media, however lively the conversation (or monologue) online. The question thus remains of who controls, uses and shapes cyberspace, from citizens seeking greater voice to political (or otherwise powerful) authorities eager to move the contest online and, perhaps, offstage.

Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali. "Oral Academic Discourse Socialisation: Challenges Faced by International Undergraduate Students in a Malaysian Public University." International Education Studies 7, no. 2 (2014): p10.
DOI: 10.5539/ies.v7n2p10
This paper reports a qualitative study which examines the challenges faced by six international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse in a Malaysian public university. Data were collected employing interviews. Students' presentations were also collected. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and qualitative content analysis was employed to examine the challenges faced by international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse. The results reveal that the major difficulties international undergraduate students face in their oral academic discourse socialisation are related to linguistic knowledge, presentation skills and content-related difficulties. Linguistic difficulties constrain students to express complex concepts and ideas while engaged in oral presentations. Difficulties related to presentation skills are associated with how to prepare PowerPoint slides and how to organise the content of the presentations. This study also reveals that content difficulties may be related to the specific topics the students are asked to prepare presentations on. In this study I argue that understanding the challenges faced by undergraduate international students in their oral academic discourse socialisation can be one of the essential steps to help them overcome the challenges they face. © Canadian Center of Science and Education.

Danial, Jovinia, and Shamsiah Mohamed. "Factors Influencing the Acquisition of Employability Skills by Students of Selected Technical Secondary School in Malaysia." International Education Studies 7, no. 2 (2014): p117.
DOI: 10.5539/ies.v7n2p117
The main purpose of the study was to assess the acquisition of employability skills by vocational students in Malaysia. A total of 214 students participated in the study. We used the SCANS instrument to assess vocational students' employability skills. The overall mean of vocational secondary students' employability skills was 3.81 (SD = 0.34). Students' employability skills were found to be correlated with gender (rpb = -.172, p = .012), industrial training (rpb = .137, p = .046), involvement in extracurricular activities (r = .177, p = .010), participation in career development activities (r = .218, p = .001) and self-concept (r = .429, p = .000). We used a step-wise multiple regression to determine the variables that best predict students' acquisition of employability skills. We found that three variables (self-concept, participation in career development activities, and industrial training) explained 23.1% of the total variance in the acquisition of employability skills, with self-concept being the main predictor (β = 0.39), followed by participation in career development activities (β = 0.29), and industrial training (β = 0.19). © Canadian Center of Science and Education.

Goh, See-Kwong, and Manjit-Singh Sandhu. "The Influence of Trust on Knowledge Donating and Collecting: An Examination of Malaysian Universities." International Education Studies 7, no. 2 (2014): p125.
DOI: 10.5539/ies.v7n2p125
The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of affect-based trust and cognition-based trust on knowledge sharing behaviour by adopting the theory of planned behaviour in selected universities in Malaysia. The research adopted survey method and a total of 545 participants from 30 universities. Multiple regression was used to assess the research model. The findings indicate that attitude and subjective norms had positive impact on both knowledge donating and knowledge collecting. However, perceived behavioural control had significant effect on knowledge donating while trust had significant effect on knowledge collecting. Practitioners should focus in developing a climate where academics will have positive attitude and subjective norms towards knowledge sharing as well as a climate of trustworthiness. © Canadian Center of Science and Education.

Khan, Aqeel, Roslee Ahmad, Abdul Rahim Hamdan, and Mohamed Sharif Mustaffa. "Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students." International Education Studies 7, no. 2 (2014): p18.
DOI: 10.5539/ies.v7n2p18
Current study examines the predictors' of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results showed authoritative parenting styles were mostly used by the parents of their special education students. Significant relationships were existed in parenting styles, educational encouragement and academic achievement among special educational students. Educational encouragement from mother, father, sibling and friends, ethnicity and gender were found to be significant predictors for academic achievement. Findings of current research suggested parenting styles and educational encouragement contribute to special education student's academic achievement. The results of the current study provide the insight for the educators, teachers and parents dealing with special education adolescents. © Canadian Center of Science and Education.

Utama, Cynthia A., and Sidharta Utama. "Determinants of disclosure level of related party transactions in Indonesia." International Journal of Disclosure and Governance 11, no. 1 (2014): 74-98.
DOI: 10.1057/jdg.2012.15
The purpose of this study is to examine whether the level of Related Party Transaction (RPT) disclosure is influenced by corporate governance practice (CG), size of RPTs, firm size, auditor quality, and type of industry (that is regulated versus non-regulated), ownership concentration and financial leverage. We find that the extent of RPT disclosure is positively affected by CG practice and is marginally positively influenced by size of RPTs and firm size. These positive impacts primarily occur for relatively large firms. Further test reveals that CG practice, firm size, industry regulation, ownership concentration and financial leverage have significant effect on different components of RPT disclosure.

Christopher Walker and Robert W. Orttung. "Breaking the News: The Role of State-Run Media." Journal of Democracy 25, no. 1 (2014): 71-85.
DOI: 10.1353/jod.2014.0015
Despite the rise of the Internet, state-dominated media-especially television-remain a crucial tool for regime control in authoritarian societies. Governments in China and Russia are the forefront of the state media model, but such systems dominate in countries as diverse as Azerbaijan, Iran, Rwanda, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe. To achieve dominance state media seek to influence four audiences: regime coalition elites; the populace at large; Internet users; and the opposition and civil society. The authoritarian media strategy is not designed to block everything, but instead is aimed at obstructing news about politics or other sensitive issues from consistently reaching key audiences. The Internet may offer a freer alternative to state-dominated media, but the Internet's fragmented character makes it a poor match for the disciplined messaging of authoritarian regimes that have a single-minded focus on self-preservation. © 2014 National Endowment for Democracy and Johns Hopkins University Press.

Cole, Stroma. "Tourism and water: from stakeholders to rights holders, and what tourism businesses need to do." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 22, no. 1 (2014): 89-106.
DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2013.776062
Water is a human right and it is essential to sustain life and livelihoods, as well as the health and happiness of tourists. This paper examines a destination with ample rain, but rapid and unchecked tourism development: Bali, Indonesia. The mismanagement of water resources means underground supplies are polluted and local people suffer from water scarcity. A multi-method approach with the various stakeholders was used to develop a stakeholder map that identifies duty bearers and rights holders. The government is the primary legal duty bearer to provide communities with water, but companies also have unique responsibilities. This paper examines why tourism businesses need to conduct human rights impact assessments. Taking due diligence for human rights can be seen as a business opportunity, leading to reduced operating costs and increased reputational strength. The benefits and challenges for business are explored. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Mincai, Yu. "China's Responses to the Compulsory Arbitration on the South China Sea Dispute: Legal Effects and Policy Options." Ocean Development & International Law 45, no. 1 (2014): 1-16.
DOI: 10.1080/00908320.2014.867190
China's responses of turning its back on the compulsory arbitration initiated by the Philippines on 22 January 2013 with respect to aspects of the South China Sea dispute between them under Article 287 and Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and failing to participate in constituting the five-member Arbitral Tribunal raise issues of whether the arbitral process has or can be halted by China and whether China's nonparticipation is in its best interest. This article examines the legal effects of China's actions and China's policy options with respect to the arbitral procedure started by the Philippines. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Amer, Ramses. "China, Vietnam, and the South China Sea: Disputes and Dispute Management." Ocean Development & International Law 45, no. 1 (2014): 17-40.
DOI: 10.1080/00908320.2013.839160
This article examines recent developments in the South China Sea; in particular, the China-Vietnam relationship. The developments are presented in the broader context of the Sino-Vietnamese approach to managing border disputes since full normalization of relations in late 1991. The challenges for China and Vietnam in managing their disputes and related tension in the South China Sea are also discussed. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Magnússon, Bjarni Már. "The Rejection of a Theoretical Beauty: The Foot of the Continental Slope in Maritime Boundary Delimitations Beyond 200 Nautical Miles." Ocean Development & International Law 45, no. 1 (2014): 41-52.
DOI: 10.1080/00908320.2013.839159
This article addresses maritime boundary delimitation concerning the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. The focal point is how the foot of the continental slope can be used as the point of departure in drawing the provisional equidistance line in outer continental shelf boundary delimitations between neighboring states. The article examines the strength and weaknesses of this approach and asks whether the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea indirectly rejected this approach in the 2012 Bangladesh v. Myanmar Case. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Parinduri, Rasyad A., and Yohanes E. Riyanto. "Bank Ownership and Efficiency in the Aftermath of Financial Crises: Evidence from Indonesia." Review of Development Economics 18, no. 1 (2014): 93-106.
DOI: 10.1111/rode.12071
This paper examines the relationship between types of ownership of banks and their efficiency in the aftermath of a financial crisis using Greene's "true" panel data stochastic frontier model, which takes into account unobserved heterogeneity among banks. The Indonesian banking sector is analyzed using financial data of 144 banks operating in Indonesia over the period of 2000Q4-2005Q2. In the aftermath of the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the cost efficiency of all banks improves over time on average. However, there is some evidence that, as these banks improve their efficiency, state-owned banks are the least efficient banks while joint-venture and foreign-owned banks are the most efficient. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Southwick, Katherine G. 2014. "Myanmar's Democratic Transition." Tilburg Law Review no. 19 (1-2):261-275
DOI: 10.1163/22112596-01902025
Myanmar's recent reforms have opened an uncertain chapter in the history of the Rohingya, a Muslim minority group representing one of the world's most protracted cases of statelessness. Perceived by some as illegal Bengali migrants, for decades the Rohingya have suffered discrimination, forced labour, and campaigns of violence and displacement. Over a million subsist as refugees or undocumented migrants in other countries. This paper reviews the history of the Rohingya in Myanmar, including recent violence and living conditions of those inside and outside the country. Against this background, the paper considers how Myanmar's political and economic reforms present opportunities for the government and international actors to alleviate and ultimately resolve the plight of the Rohingya. Guided by national and international laws, a strategy could emphasise ensuring security, upholding rights, particularly equal rights to citizenship, and promoting broad-based economic development, all in a nondiscriminatory manner. © 2014 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Allerton, Catherine. 2014. "Statelessness and the Lives of the Children of Migrants in Sabah, East Malaysia." Tilburg Law Review no. 19 (1-2):26-34.
DOI: 10.1163/22112596-01902004
This article explores issues involved with researching statelessness 'on the ground' during ethnographic fieldwork in Malaysia with the children of migrants and refugees. It argues that many of these children, whose parents or grandparents originate from Indonesia or the Philippines, lack an 'effective nationality'. However, rather than statelessness or illegality per se, what dominates these children's lives is their perpetual 'foreignness'. Even when children might be able to have their citizenship recognised by a parental country of origin, families often prefer to remain undocumented, and to wait (perhaps indefinitely) for the Malaysian citizenship they perceive as rightfully theirs. © 2014 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

van Waas, Laura, Conny Rijken, and Martin Gramatikov. 2014. "Exploring the Interaction between Statelessness, Legal Empowerment and Human Trafficking." Tilburg Law Review no. 19 (1-2):303-312.
DOI: 10.1163/22112596-01902030
There is a common claim and widely held perception that statelessness puts a person at greater risk of becoming a victim of human trafficking. The underlying logic is compelling: without any nationality, stateless people often face severe obstacles in access to education, employment, health care, legal remedies, freedom of movement and other basic rights - thus they are more likely to take risks in the hope of improving their lives and they are more readily exploitable. The link between statelessness and a heightened vulnerability to human trafficking has, however, never been decisively demonstrated using empirical data. In order to fill this information gap, the authors sought to develop a methodology that would enable the connection between statelessness and trafficking to be mapped. This article outlines the theory and assumptions that underlie the research methodology developed and briefly discusses how this methodology is being implemented in a concrete pilot project in Thailand. © 2014 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Cheong, Amanda R. 2014. "Using Oral History Methods to Document the Subjective Experiences of Statelessness." Tilburg Law Review no. 19 (1-2):74-80.
DOI: 10.1163/22112596-01902008
This article reflects upon the use of oral histories in uncovering people's subjective experiences of statelessness - an area that has received relatively little attention in the growing body of literature on statelessness. Through an analysis of 13 oral history interviews with formerly stateless Chinese-Bruneian immigrants living in Vancouver, this study sought to understand the emotional and material repercussions of being denied a nationality, as well as respondents' conceptions of citizenship and civic behaviour. By privileging the voices of formerly stateless people and giving them the opportunity to tell their life stories using their own words, this study advocates for the need to pay greater attention to the subjective, quotidian dimensions of this global human rights crisis. © 2014 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Abdul-Rahman, Hamzah, Mahanim Hanid, and Xiang Wen Yap. 2014. "Does professional ethics affect quality of construction – a case in a developing economy?" Total Quality Management & Business Excellence no. 25 (3-4):235-248.
DOI: 10.1080/14783363.2013.776764
Purpose: This paper highlights the current level of professional ethics standards in the construction industry in a developing economy and how ethics influences the quality of construction projects. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire survey and interviews were conducted on a selected sample from the construction industry in Malaysia, which has a fast-developing economy. Findings: The findings amongst others indicate that various forms of unethical conducts that could have a significant impact on the quality of construction were found in the construction industry. The findings also suggest that professional ethics is a pre-requisite to attaining a sustained and acceptable standard of quality in construction. Originality/value: apart from linking professional ethics to the quality of construction, this paper suggests ways to enhance professionalism among construction professionals to improve quality in construction including: imposing heavier penalties on those who are found to act unethically, attending ethics-training programmes and having regular ethics-awareness workshops. The construction industry needs to achieve internationally accepted quality levels to ensure that it is well positioned to support the nation's overall economic growth and to meet various challenges at the national and international levels. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Kontogeorgopoulos, Nick, Anuwat Churyen, and Varaphorn Duangsaeng. 2013. "Success Factors in Community-Based Tourism in Thailand: The Role of Luck, External Support, and Local Leadership." Tourism Planning & Development no. 11 (1):106-124.
DOI: 10.1080/21568316.2013.852991
The dominant narrative regarding tourism in Thailand centers on the various negative social and environmental consequences of rapid growth, but in the midst of this explosive expansion of conventional tourism, a less recognized story has recently emerged. Due to the efforts of researchers, environmental activists, non-governmental organizations, and public officials, community-based tourism (CBT) has become in the past decade an important component of the domestic tourism market, and signifies trends that are more encouraging than those associated with more conventional forms of tourism in Thailand. While it is true that some rural communities in Thailand struggle to plan, initiate, and sustain CBT projects, it is nevertheless possible, with the right combination of circumstances, to pursue successful CBT. The paper explores the emergence of CBT in Thailand, and examines the case study of Mae Kampong, a village in the Northern Thai province of Chiang Mai that is renowned nationally as a showcase CBT community. Using data and observations gathered during more than 30 research or study-tour visits to Mae Kampong, this paper argues that fortunate geographical conditions, external support, and transformational leadership represent the most important determinants of success for CBT in Thailand. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Thirumaran, K., Minh Xuan Dam, and Carol Marie Thirumaran. 2013. "Integrating Souvenirs with Tourism Development: Vietnam's Challenges." Tourism Planning & Development no. 11 (1):57-67.
DOI: 10.1080/21568316.2013.839471
The idea of destination development often emphasizes transport connectivity, hospitality services, infrastructure building, attractions facilities and promotions with an indicative measure of visitor arrivals. In contrast, we underline the importance of souvenirs corollary to tourism development if it is related to traditional crafts especially in emerging destinations. Souvenirs in tourism are a useful tool in promoting a tourist destination's image. However, in Vietnam's tourism landscape, souvenir development has not played a corresponding role of image creation and commercial enterprise. We examine the problems of adapting Vietnamese souvenirs for tourism using stakeholder analysis. Attention to souvenirs in Vietnam provides an opportunity to illustrate the nexus between tourism development trajectories, image-making and the intricacies involved in national representation. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

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