Nov 26, 2013

Academic articles in 3nd week of Nov 2013

Despite being late, it's still the time to see what new academic articles are in past week!



  • Cox, Anne, Zeenobiyah Hannif, and Chris Rowley. "Leadership styles and generational effects: examples of US companies in Vietnam." The International Journal of Human Resource Management ahead-of-print (2013): 1-22.
    DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2013.778311
Abstract
Leadership styles are an important issue for a range of areas, including business and management. One aspect of this is the influence of the age of people on their receptivity to leadership styles. Yet, research on this area using Asian contexts is limited. Consequently, our research looks at the generational effect in the reception of leadership styles - performance-oriented and participative. In particular, we examine the different value orientations of age cohorts and their reception to different leadership styles in Vietnam. First, we outline three strands of literature, namely culture and leadership, generation as a subculture and Vietnam as a context for the transfer of leadership styles. Second, our research methodology is detailed. Third, our empirical research using case study methods is presented. Our results cover the characteristics of three main age cohorts: the resilience of the pre-1975 born, the adaptability of 1975-1986 born and the arrival of the post-1986 born. Following the discussion and implications, we provide some brief conclusions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
  • Hwang, Bon-Gang, Xianbo Zhao, and Li Ping Toh. "Risk management in small construction projects in Singapore: Status, barriers and impact." International Journal of Project Management (2013).
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijproman.2013.01.007
Abstract
Risk management (RM) should be implemented in construction projects to assure the achievement of project objectives, regardless of project size. This study aims to investigate RM in small projects in Singapore in terms of status, barriers and impact of RM on project performance. To achieve the objectives, a questionnaire survey was conducted and data were collected from 668 projects submitted by 34 companies. The analysis results indicated a relatively low level of RM implementation in small projects, and that "lack of time", "lack of budget", "low profit margin", and "not economical" were prominent barriers. Also, the results reported the positive correlation between RM implementation and improvement in quality, cost and schedule performance of small projects, respectively. The findings of this study can provide an in-depth understanding of RM in small projects in Singapore and make benefits of RM convincing to the participants of small projects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and APM IPMA.
  • Billing, Tejinder K., Rabi S. Bhagat, Emin Babakus, Balaji Krishnan, David L. Ford, B. N. Srivastava, Ujvala Rajadhyaksha et al. "Work–Family Conflict and Organisationally Valued Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Decision Latitude in Five National Contexts." Applied Psychology (2012).
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2012.00526.x
Abstract
The moderating role of decision latitude on the relationship between work-family conflict and psychological strain was examined across five countries. It was hypothesised that decision latitude would moderate the relationship more strongly in the individualistic countries (the United States and Canada) than in the collectivistic countries (India, Indonesia, and South Korea). The results supported the hypotheses of this five-country-based cross-national investigation. The implications of the findings for theory and practice in the area of international and cross-cultural research on work and family conflicts in the organisational context are discussed. © 2012 International Association of Applied Psychology.
  • Draper, John, and Paweena Prasertsri. "The Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's multilingual signage attitude survey." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 34, no. 7 (2013): 617-635.
    DOI: 10.1080/01434632.2013.814659
Abstract
This article reviews part of the progress of the first year of the Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme (ICMRP), a four-year 540,000 euro series of pilot studies co-funded by the European Union and based in Thailand. The ICMRP is based in four semi-autonomous municipalities in Khon Kaen Province, viz. Ban Phai, Chum Phae, Khon Kaen and Meuang Phon, and facilitated by the College of Local Administration at Khon Kaen University. Its main actions are introducing multilingual Thai-Isan (Thai Lao)-English signage and an atmosphere of multilingualism, revitalising cloth weaving by using traditional methods to supply student uniforms, maintaining and revitalising cultural performances through training schoolchildren and the community and then creating a multimedia educational database complete with lesson plans, and introducing first oral Isan, then written Isan, as part of a mandatory Isan school subject. After providing a brief overview of the ICMRP, this article focuses in detail on the Chum Phae Municipality action that is the introduction of multilingual signage, by focusing on the results of information provision and attitude surveying from the perspectives of language shift, ethnolinguistic vitality, language policy planning and the linguistic landscape. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
  • High, Holly, and Pierre Petit. "Introduction: The Study of the State in Laos."Asian Studies Review 37, no. 4 (2013): 417-432.
    DOI: 10.1080/10357823.2013.833579

  • Tappe, Oliver. "Faces and Facets of the Kantosou Kou Xat–The Lao “National Liberation Struggle” in State Commemoration and Historiography." Asian Studies Review 37, no. 4 (2013).
    DOI: 10.1080/10357823.2013.770448
Abstract
Contemporary Lao history and politics are characterised by an ambivalent ideological hybrid of cultural heritage protection and revolutionary glorification. Even though Buddhism and its related ritual practices appear to have regained considerable ground in official nation-building strategies, the "national liberation struggle" (Lao: kantosou kou xat) continues to constitute a key element of the national discourse as represented by official historiography and state iconography. In fact, the revival of royal-Buddhist images is linked to the "struggle", since past kings of the Lao Buddhist kingdom of Lane Xang are at present re-interpreted as proto-national patriotic fighters on behalf of the so-called "Lao multi-ethnic people".This paper argues that the different aspects of official Lao history and memory politics are directed towards the twin goals of ideological nation building and the self-legitimisation of the present regime. Heroic kings such as Anouvong and Setthathilat are highlighted as ancestors of Kaysone Phomvihane and other revolutionaries of the twentieth century within a genealogy of national heroes. Besides discussing present historiographical narratives of the Lao "struggle", this paper explores material and performative aspects of state commemoration, in particular with regard to national lieux de mémoire and public events. © 2013 Asian Studies Association of Australia.
  • Ducourtieux, Olivier. "Lao State Formation in Phôngsali Villages: Rising Intervention in the Daily Household and Phounoy Reaction." Asian Studies Review 37, no. 4 (2013): 451-470.
    DOI: 10.1080/10357823.2013.771771
Abstract
Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Phunoy in Phongsaly province have been closely linked with the state in Laos through their role in defence, yet state intervention in their affairs has remained minimal. Villages have traditionally organised their own social and economic lives without interference at household or community levels. Since the first half of the twentieth century, successive states in Laos have attempted to benefit from Phunoy villages, but they have had limited and transient success. For the last 15 years, however, the state has become a more significant reality for villagers, with a swath of policies implemented locally: resettlement, land reform, mandatory commercial plantations, a shifting cultivation ban, a hunting ban, etc. This synergistic cocktail has contributed to drastic and irreversible changes in village livelihoods and the landscape. Surprisingly, the Phunoy have not reacted publicly to this drastic revolution of their livelihood. I investigate whether their apparent lack of resistance is a counter-example to the more widely-debated concept of "Zomia". I conclude that the Phunoy resist the state at the family level, and move away from their former homes, leaving behind a deserted landscape. © 2013 © 2013 Asian Studies Association of Australia.
  • Ladwig, Patrice. "Haunting the State: Rumours, Spectral Apparitions and the Longing for Buddhist Charisma in Laos." Asian Studies Review 37, no. 4 (2013): 509-526.
    DOI: 10.1080/10357823.2013.769496
Abstract
Buddhist ascetic monks and hermits that move largely outside of the institutional structures of the monastic order (sangha) have a long history in mainland Southeast Asia. In Lao Buddhism these figures seem to have largely disappeared, but due to their charismatic qualities they still occupy a crucial position in the social imaginary. This article explores rumours and narratives about the existence of ascetic monks and hermits in contemporary Laos. I argue that rumours about, and narratives of, spectral apparitions of these figures express a longing for Buddhist charisma that is partially rooted in Laos' revolutionary past, and in recent social and economic changes. As Buddhist charisma can point to alternative, personalised sources of power, I argue that rumours and spectral apparitions can be interpreted as haunting, and therefore afflicting and challenging the current politics of religion of the Lao state. © 2013 Asian Studies Association of Australia.
  • High, Holly. "Experimental Consensus: Negotiating with the Irrigating State in the South of Laos." Asian Studies Review 37, no. 4 (2013): 491-508.
    DOI: 10.1080/10357823.2013.794188
Abstract
It is common to view Laos as a political culture prone to "consensus", yet it is also true that policy is constantly changing there, often radically. If everyone is always "in consensus", what can explain this change? I suggest that the answer is found in the particular kind of consensus at play: it is informed by a wider "experimentarian" ethic evident in rural Laos, where ideas (including the latest policies) are put to the test through practical implementation. The results of these experiments are used to validate policy change and reversal. This allows rural residents a degree of manoeuvrability in their engagements with the state that is striking given the "authoritarian" status of the current regime. It can explain and is used to justify, for instance, the oft-observed gap between policy and actual practice. This room for manoeuvre comes at the price of "playing the game", at least for a while, of the latest policy fad, sometimes with disastrous consequences for rural livelihoods. I use the example of an irrigation project that was implemented in the south of Laos from 1999-2002 to examine "experimental consensus" at work as policy was received, engaged and eventually relinquished. © 2013 Asian Studies Association of Australia.
  • Petit, Pierre. "Ethnic Performance and the State in Laos: The Boun Greh Annual Festival of the Khmou." Asian Studies Review 37, no. 4 (2013): 471-490.
    DOI: 10.1080/10357823.2013.794189
Abstract
Following the 1975 revolution, the Laotian statesmen adopted a modernising discourse that targeted "backward" traditions as undesirable. But since the 1990s, authorities have mitigated this standpoint, distinguishing "good" from "bad" traditions according to their compatibility with the program of national development, and professing their will to (re)instate the former as suitable expressions of culture in a multi-ethnic nation. This is manifest everywhere from the National Constitution to TV shows and ethnic catalogues. This paper analyses the implementation of these principles through the case of the boun greh New Year festival, an invented ethnic tradition of the Khmou, the largest ethnic minority in Laos. The article demonstrates that this implementation has consequentially implied the adoption of a grammar of national ethnicity; that this official framework paradoxically allows the Khmou to articulate demands for better recognition of their group; and that this process does not mute expressions of "cultural intimacy" at variance with this matrix. The official frame of ethnicity has been eventually adopted by the Khmou, but this state effect has multiplied the layers of expressed ethnicity: it cannot be equated with a unilateral regimentation that would deprive the Khmou of their agency. © 2013 Asian Studies Association of Australia.
  • Poon, Angelia. "Common Ground, Multiple Claims: Representing and Constructing Singapore’s “Heartland”." Asian Studies Review 37, no. 4 (2013).
    DOI: 10.1080/10357823.2013.844768
Abstract
This article examines the various meanings of "heartland" and "heartlander" in Singapore that emerged as the city-state embarked on its transformation into a global city in the 1990s. It discusses the political and ideological nature of these terms, including the way the state has tended to deploy them and the ways they are used in public discourse. The terms' usage serves as a measure of the state's not unproblematic attempts to define its citizenry in order to reinscribe its legitimacy. The deployment of the terms by non-state actors and individuals, however, indicates greater civic involvement in national self-identification, which complicates the official state version. The article focuses on two significant Singapore texts that contribute to the cultural imaginary of the heartland and the heartlander - the novel Heartland by Daren Shiau and the film Eating Air by Kelvin Tong and Jasmine Ng. In implicit opposition to the state view, these creative works seek to convey a sense of the local and of national authenticity through their creative representation of the Singapore heartland and what it means to be a heartlander, disclosing in the process various social tensions, silences and cultural blind spots. © 2013 © 2013 Asian Studies Association of Australia.
  • Bayudan-Dacuycuy, Connie, and Joseph Anthony Lim. "Family size, household shocks and chronic and transient poverty in the Philippines." Journal of Asian Economics (2013).
    DOI: 10.1016/j.asieco.2013.10.001
Abstract
This research is one of the few attempts to analyze chronic and transient poverty in the Philippines. Results indicate that poverty in the Philippines is largely comprised of chronic poverty with households in rural areas and Mindanao regions being the most affected. Using quantile regressions, results show that both chronic and transient poverty are affected by negative shocks to households. Shocks in the labor market such as job loss or income reduction affect chronic poverty while natural disasters such as droughts affect transient poverty. Results also indicate that a higher dependency burden due to a large number of younger children positively affects chronic poverty but not transient poverty. Policy suggestions to lower both types of poverty in the Philippine context are provided. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
  • Avtar, Ram, Haruo Sawada, and Pankaj Kumar. "Role of remote sensing and community forestry to manage forests for the effective implementation of REDD+ mechanism: a case study on Cambodia." Environment, Development and Sustainability (2013): 1-11.
    DOI: 10.1007/s10668-013-9448-y
Abstract
In this study, we have shown the importance of remote sensing applications and community forestry for forest management, discussed as a case study on Cambodian forest management. Curbing deforestation is necessary for the effective implementation of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forests Degradation (REDD+) mechanism and management of forest resources to support sustainable forest management plans. The updated information of the forest cover and forest biomass using advanced remote sensing techniques can be useful for selecting the suitable sites for planned thinning, reforestation, community forestry, and concession land, which eventually will help in controlling the deforestation in Cambodia. To overcome the limitations of remote sensing, an integrated approach of remote sensing and community forestry to monitor forests from local to national level has also been discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
  • Koch, N. (2013), Introduction – Field methods in ‘closed contexts’: undertaking research in authoritarian states and places. Area, 45: 390–395.
    doi: 10.1111/area.12044
This special section on field methods in authoritarian states and places aims to move beyond the normative language of the liberal/illiberal binary by foregrounding the ways in which closure can be an authoritarian act. Illustrating the variety of scales and places at which these practices unfold, the contributors are concerned with what implications they have for conducting geographic fieldwork. The main questions raised by this set of papers are: how is research in ‘closed contexts’ different from (or similar to) more ‘open’ settings? Does it raise unique ethical and methodological dilemmas? In what ways are field methods themselves informed by particular notions of power, agency, and freedom, and how might these differ between more- or less-closed settings? This article first provides some theoretical contextualization, before then introducing how each author variably highlights these themes through a critical reflection on their own experiences of conducting fieldwork in closed contexts, ranging from Vietnam to Kazakhstan, Mozambique, and the United States.
  • Turner, S. (2013), Red stamps and green tea: fieldwork negotiations and dilemmas in the Sino-Vietnamese borderlands. Area, 45: 396–402.
    doi: 10.1111/area.12017
Abstract
The socialist spaces within the upland Southeast Asian Massif are home to over 70 million people belonging to geographically dispersed and politically fragmented ethnic minority populations. State authorities have long considered these upland margins as frontier regions where ‘inconsequential peoples’ lag behind national standards. Over time, the Chinese and Vietnamese states have worked to enclose these spaces through a range of ‘development’ programmes and politico-economic strategies. Undertaking qualitative social science research here is underscored by a specific set of challenges (red stamps), dilemmas and negotiations (green tea). In a contemporary context that interweaves economic liberalisation with centralised and authoritarian political structures, I explore how I have negotiated and manoeuvred access to ethnic minority voices. Specifically, I focus on fieldwork endeavours in the Sino-Vietnamese borderlands to answer two core questions. First, in these socialist arenas, how can researchers negotiate access to still-marginalised groups misunderstood by the central state? And second, what are the most pressing ethical questions raised by cross-cultural fieldwork in these spaces and how might these be addressed? While debating these ethical and methodological challenges, I reflect upon the numerous roles of gatekeepers, concerns over the well-being of interviewees and the importance of self-censorship.
  • Tolentino, Laramie R., Patrick Raymund James M. Garcia, Simon Lloyd D. Restubog, Prashant Bordia, and Robert L. Tang. "Validation of the career adapt-abilities scale and an examination of a model of career adaptation in the Philippine context." Journal of Vocational Behavior 83, no. 3 (2013): 410-418.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jvb.2013.06.013
Abstract
This paper presents the validation of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) in the Philippine context. The CAAS consists of four subscales, with six items each, measuring self-regulative psychosocial resources (e.g., concern, curiosity, control, and confidence) for coping with occupational tasks and transitions. Filipino university students (. N=. 289) and working adults (. N=. 495) participated in the study. Internal consistency estimates for the full scale and subscales ranged from 87 to 97. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the multidimensional and hierarchical model of career adaptability. The factor structure was similar to that obtained from the CAAS international validation from 18 countries. Results also suggested that career adaptability was positively associated with adaptivity in the form of tenacious goal pursuit and flexible goal adjustment as well as with adaptation outcomes of career satisfaction and promotability. Overall, the findings confirm the utility of CAAS in the Philippine context and support the model that states higher levels of personal adaptivity (willingness) and career adaptability (competence) relate to better adaptation outcomes in terms of career success. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
  • Loo, Phik-Wern, and Adrian Furnham. "Knowledge and Beliefs About Depression among Urban and Rural Indian Malaysians." Mental Health, Religion & Culture 16, no. 10 (2013): 1009-29.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2012.728579
Abstract:
This study was concerned with mental health literacy specifically with regard to depression. It aimed to investigate “depression literacy” in a sample of urban and rural Indians in Malaysia. A total of 314 participants completed a survey that examined knowledge about depression using a vignette-identification method, and ratings of statements about causes and treatments for depression. The vignette-identification task showed that urban participants were more likely than rural participants to identify depression as such. Only a small minority of rural participants recognised the disorder, using the actual term depression. Factor analysis of the causes and belief items revealed a number of distinct factors, of which trauma and stress were the most strongly endorsed causal factor. For treatment, religious observance and lifestyle factors were rated highly by both groups. The findings suggest that information campaigns are needed to increase the level of awareness about depression targeting the rural population. Limitations are considering including possible ethnocentric biases. The implications of these results are considered.
  • Fauzi, Nur Fauzan Bt, Fais Ahmad, and Hamid Mahmood  Gelaidan. "The Employee Retention Status in Paddy and Rice Industry in Malaysia." World Applied Sciences Journal 25, no. 4 (2013): 644-52.
    DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.25.04.13311
    http://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj25(4)13/15.pdf
Abstract
Nowadays, changes in technology, global economic, trade agreements and the like are straight forwardly affecting employee/employer relationship. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the several factors that associated with employee retention in Malaysian industry context. In this study, work environment, compensation, training/development and supervisor support, were examined with employee retention. The finding showed that only work environment and training/ development were found significantly related to employee retention. Whereas, the compensation and supervisor support showed nonsignificant relation with employee retention. The implication, limitation and recommendation were given. © IDOSI Publications, 2013.
  • Tsujinaka, Yutaka, Shakil Ahmed, and Yohei Kobashi. "Constructing Co-governance between Government and Civil Society: An Institutional Approach to Collaboration." Public Organization Review (2013): 1-16.
    DOI: 10.1007/s11115-013-0260-9
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyze how civil society organizations (CSOs) collaborate with both developed and developing governments in Asia through institutional processes. It argues that in developed countries, institutional arrangements have a positive impact on collaboration. Favourable administrative governance can create collaboration between governments and CSOs. This paper reports on 3,944 studies of CSOs from 2004 to 2009 in Tokyo, Seoul, Manila, and Dhaka. CSOs in Tokyo have better combined collaborative and institutional processes than those in the other three cities. Governance in Seoul is more polarized than in the other cities, and in both Manila and Dhaka, despite there being a high degree of institutionalized relations between CSOs and the government, their collaboration is low. This research also finds that intermediary institutions between governments and CSOs play a role in co-governance. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Abstract
Developing economies as well as developed economies recognized appropriate tourism policies will be an important factor in promoting economic growth, BIMP-EAGA (Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area) was conceived with the objective to speed up economic development among the four countries and one of which is focused on tourism. Focusing on annual data, this paper utilized the bounds testing approach to cointegration and error-correction modeling to evaluate if tourism and exchange rates promote economic growth in BIMP-EAGA, The results revealed that Philippines is the only country that has a positive short and long impact from tourism's industry and exchange rates.
Abstract
This paper examines how gender relations influence and are influenced by migrant networks. It argues that within migration networks, there are differences between men and women in terms of their position in the networks and their access to networks on the basis of sexual difference. It draws on the ethnographic fieldwork at Tom Yam restaurants in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia with in-depth interviews and participant and non-participant observations. The paper concludes by discussing the existence of separate men's and women's networks. This study found that men and women are likely to access different forms of networks when they first migrate from the border southern provinces of Thailand to Malaysia. Within Malaysia, female migrant workers do not move as frequently as male workers from their increasing networks in Malaysia. Migrant women differ from their male counterparts in that they do not use their networks to seek available jobs and social contacts with restaurant owners, no matter how many connections they have. Women were thought to be at higher risk, therefore, they needed to establish close ties to protect themselves which takes time. As a consequence, moving within Malaysia is not easy for women.
Abstract
This paper examines an intricate relationship between inflation rate and unemplovment rate in the Philippines by employing several economic methods, including the dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) (Stock and Watson. 1993) and the Hodrick-Prescott filter (Hodrick and Prescott. 1997), The current research detected a long-run negative and a causal relationship between inflation rates and unemployment in the Philippines. In other words, the current study offered an additional empirical support for the existence of the Phillips curve in the developing countries, such as the Philippines.
  • Azam, Muhammad , Chandra  Emirullah, A. C. Prabhakar, and A. Qayyum Khan. "The Role of External Debt in Economic Growth of Indonesia - a Blessing or Burden?". World Applied Sciences Journal 25, no. 8 (2013): 1150-57.
    http://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj25(8)13/5.pdf
Abstract
Today external debt situation is one of great concerns particularly for developing countries. The ongoing debt crisis in several European countries has the potential of creating external shocks to these countries but at the same time it shows the importance of managing well their debt. Several developing countries including Indonesia have faced stern economic problems in the past due to a high level of external debt. On the other hand, economic growth is vital to improve social welfare.This study analyzes the impact of external debt on economic growthof Indonesia. The method of least squares is used for parameters estimation. The main finding of the study shows external debthasa negativeimpact on economic growth during the period under the study. Thus, external debtis not a blessing but rather a burden for Indonesia. The finding suggests the importance of controlling external debt both, public and private, as well as enhancing debt management effectiveness. © IDOSI Publications, 2013.
  • Huda, Miftahul , and M. Agung Wibowo. "Strategies, Performance, Sustainability and Competitiveness Model: Small and Medium Construction Services Industries in Indonesia." World Applied Sciences Journal 25, no. 8 (2013): 1186-96.
    http://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj25(8)13/12.pdf
Abstract
Some previous researchers had conducted a study on the relationship of competency management, resources and company capabilities, strategy, performance, sustainability and competitiveness variables. This study focused on analyzing the relationship model of strategy, performance, sustainability and competitiveness of small and medium construction services companies in Indonesia. The survey was conducted through interviews using a Likert scale (1-5) questionnaire. The population and study sample are a group of construction services companies that had been certified for business entities and already had at least five years experience. The respondents consisted of leaders or owners of a small or medium construction services company in Indonesia. A combination of stratified, proportional and purposive sampling method was used. SEM (Smart PLS) was used to test the validity and reliability of the model as the data analysis technique. The research concludes that the competitiveness of small and medium construction services companies were influenced by corporate sustainability, which influenced by firm performance, which influenced by the strategy, competency management, resources and capabilities of the company. © IDOSI
Abstract
This paper examined herding behavior in the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) in order to guide development of the SET. The study could also be beneficial to the decision making process of investors in the SET. An analysis of daily closing industrial sector price data for 22 sectors from 2 January 1990 to 30 December 2010, found evidence of herding behavior in the SET. The finance and securities sector was a source of herding behavior in the SET that influenced the dispersion of returns in other industrial sectors. This behavior existed in both up and down markets; nevertheless, herding behavior often appeared in a rising market more than in a down market. Furthermore, after including the impact of Thailand's financial crisis, it was found that this event explained herding behavior in the SET. However, the USA's financial crisis had no influence on herding behavior in the SET.
Abstract
The association was investigated between the need for behavioral refinement based on Islamic Principles among Muslim juveniles with or without risky types of behavior in the three southern border provinces of Thailand—namely, Pattani, Yala, and Naratiwat. Data were collected from 2,160 participants who were selected by a multi-stage sampling technique and their behavior analyzed by calculating odds ratios and employing chi-square tests using the EcStat program. The results revealed that the ten areas of needs considered in the study were significantly associated with different types of Muslim juveniles (with or without risky types of behavior) and that Muslim juveniles with risky types of behavior perceived themselves to need a lower level of behavioral refinement from Muslim leaders in eight areas of needs than those who had no or less risky types of behavior. These eight areas of needs were: association with friends of the same gender (1.37 times), association with friends of a different gender (1.48 times), education (1.50 times), use of free time (1.62 times), relationship with relatives (1.59 times), relationship with the community (1.72 times), religious practice (2.10 times), and volunteering for public services (1.67 times). The Muslim juveniles with risky types of behavior perceived themselves to need an intermediate level of behavioral development from Muslim leaders in two areas at a higher ratio than those who had no or less risky types of behavior. These two areas of need were protection against wrongful doings (1.53 times) and advice on clothes and outfits (1.63 times).
Abstract
The objectives of the research were to study 1) the key success factors of an organic vegetable production system and 2) the constraints on organic vegetable production and marketing in Thailand. Data were collected from a sample of farmers and processors/handlers recognized for their best practices—namely, Rai Thon Nuey (Dare to Sweat Farm), Rai Plook Ruk (Thai Organic Farm), Suwannabhumi Organic Co. Ltd., and Swift Co. Ltd. The techniques of semi-structured interviews and observation were applied. Empirical and documentary analyses were administered. Findings revealed that key success factors and important techniques of organic farming are practiced with implicit knowledge which starts from the preparation of the ecosystem and soil nutrient then considers crop maintenance in the food chain system, and finally involves harvesting only the edible pieces. While market access with simple postharvesting at the farm level results in a longer shelf life, good quality produce is necessary. Constraints of organic vegetable production were: 1) bio-physical constraints, such as low soil fertility, water shortage, irregular rainfall and pests; 2) economic constraints such as high initial costs, high labor costs, high transport costs, and lack of market channels; and 3) knowledge constraints, such as lacking in understanding of farm problems such as nutrient balance, crop-environment interactions, postharvest management, waste management, and consumers’ perceptions. The important problem of organic vegetable farming was that farmers didn’t know what their problems were. As a solution, sharing of problems and exchanging knowledge and experiences among the various stakeholders should be considered.
Abstract
With recent studies generating skepticism toward aid-effectiveness for economic growth of some aid-dependent economies, the need to re-examine the effectiveness of foreign aid for economic growth has gained increasing importance. This paper examines the role of foreign aid in per-capita economic growth in the Philippines, a country that has historically been one of the largest recipients of foreign aid. A VECM is estimated for the period 1970-2010. Results indicate a significantly negative relationship between foreign aid and per-capita economic growth. A 1% rise in the share of aid in GDP results in a fall in per-capita real income by 0.51%.
Abstract
Vietnam's General Vo Nguyen Giap was popularly known as the "Red Napolean". A pioneer of modern guerrilla warfare, his role in the Vietnamese armed forces' stellar victories over the colonial militaries of Japan, France and the United States inspired millions in the global South in their own anti-colonial struggles. A tribute.
Abstract
Despite a long historical French presence in Vietnam, only 0.5% of Vietnamese people speak French today. As in other countries of South East Asia, language instruction in Vietnam has mainly focused on English for several decades. This paper provides an overview of a project called ‘French bilingual classes’. The main aim of the study is to analyze the benefits and the challenges identified by local teachers and researchers who have been involved in this program. The data are extracted from a corpus of 62 out of 468 papers written in French and presented during the annual Seminar on Action Research organized from 1999 to 2009 in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. The analysis of this discursive resource illustrates an overall acknowledgment of the positive outcomes of the program. However, in concordance with studies of English language teaching in Vietnam, the pitfalls identified in our corpus indicate that the major challenge is the implementation of a learner-centered and an action-oriented pedagogy in an educational context generally qualified as traditional. By providing new insights on bilingual education in Vietnam, our study will contribute to the current debate regarding the sustainability of innovative language curricula and multilingual education in the Asian context.
Abstract
The study examined, through a balanced review of western and post-colonial literatures, the development of social entrepreneurship in Indonesia prior to its independence in 1945. Findings suggest that policies imposed by the Dutch government had a considerable influence on the growth of social movement organisations in the former colony. Furthermore, these organisations had used social entrepreneurship strategies to achieve the mission of empowering native communities and mobilising them towards independence. Other factors which contributed to the growth of social entrepreneurship in the era were the influence of Islam and Javanese aristocratic leadership. Taken in the context of Indonesia's post-colonial socio-economic environment, these findings suggest that its current social entrepreneurship growth is likely to depend on three main factors: perceived degree of economic empowerment by indigenous groups as a result of social entrepreneurship, Islamic identity of social enterprises and social activism.
Abstract
By investigating the second hand clothing trade and consumption discourse in the Philippines, this paper enlarges existing global knowledge and serves as an initial attempt to map this phenomenon in South East Asia. It argues that regional and national opinions could be located in a continuum. At one end is a noticeably modern and functional outlook, and on the other is a distinctly postmodern and constructionist perspective. It shows that a nation's particular discourse is an expression of its socio-economic context. However, since the used clothing trade is a global phenomenon that transcends national boundaries, used clothing traders, retailers, and consumers unite in challenging the beliefs driven by institutions that regulate and compete with this trade. The response of these institutions has blurred the boundaries separating the formal and informal, the legal and illegal, and the Philippines exemplifies this. © The Author(s) 2013.
  • Susiloretni, Kun Aristiati, Sri Krisnamurni, Sunarto, Santo Yosef Didik Widiyanto, Ahmad Yazid, and Siswanto Agus Wilopo. "The Effectiveness of Multilevel Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Rural Indonesia." American Journal of Health Promotion 28, no. 2 (2013): 44-55.
    DOI: 10.4278/ajhp.120425-QUAN-221
Abstract
Purpose. To examine the effectiveness of multilevel promotion on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and prevalence. Design. A pretest-posttest control group design, quasi-experiment. Setting. Two public health centers in the Demak District, Central Java, Indonesia. Subjects. A total of 163 families were enrolled, including pregnant mothers, fathers, and grandmothers. Intervention. The multilevel promotion of EBF was conducted at the subdistrict, village, family, and individual levels. This was a complex intervention that modified breastfeeding determinants, integrated multidisciplinary partnerships, and involved community leaders (i.e., voluntary health workers, traditional birth attendants, Muslim scholars, and heads of villages). The strategies applied were advocacy, training, media, and home visit counseling. Measures. EBF duration and prevalence. Analysis. Survival analyses, Cox proportional-hazard model. Results. The duration of EBF increased after the multilevel promotion. The median postintervention duration in the intervention group was 18 weeks compared with .1 week in the control group (p < .001). The prevalence of EBF at 1, 8, 16, and 24 weeks for the intervention versus control groups was 75.3% vs. 28.0%, 64.2% vs. 14.6%, 50.6% vs. 8.5%, and 37.0% vs. 3.7%, respectively (p < .001). Mothers in the control group were three times more likely to stop exclusive breastfeeding per unit of time than were mothers in the intervention group (adjusted hazard ratio 3.01; 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 4.63). Conclusion. Multilevel promotion can prolong the duration and increase the prevalence of EBF. Copyright © 2013 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.
  • Pál, Nyíri. "Chinese Investors, Labour Discipline and Developmental Cosmopolitanism." Development and Change 44, no. 6 (2013): 1387-1405.
    DOI: 10.1111/dech.12064
Abstract
In recent years, China has emerged as a major source of investment and development assistance across the 'developing world', triggering the rise of global networks that in some ways stand apart from the existing order of globalization. This article, based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews in Cambodia from 2009 to 2011, begins to explore the significance of Chinese investors and managers, a new globe-trotting elite involved in projects around the world. Understanding how this new Chinese mobile class sees its mission is crucial for making sense of how China's 'rise' may be re-scripting globalization and, specifically, how it may be offering new visions of modernity. The author's research suggests that Chinese investors and managers engage in a developmental discourse which is reminiscent partly of colonial days and partly of the heyday of post-war developmentalism. This discourse articulates the possibility and necessity of progress imposed by outside actors, and is accompanied by measures that inculcate a strict Fordist labour discipline. At the same time, the author argues, it may also contain the seeds of a new developmental cosmopolitanism. © 2013 International Institute of Social Studies.
  • Hing, Lee Kam, Cheong Kee Cheok, and Lee Poh Ping. "Robert Kuok: Family, Dialect, and State in the Making of a Malaysian Magnate." Australian Economic History Review 53, no. 3 (2013): 268-291.
    DOI: 10.1111/aehr.12014
Abstract
Chinese overseas family businesses generally lack longevity. In addition to difficulties in transiting towards professional management they are susceptible to state pressures. However, Robert Kuok, the richest man in Southeast Asia who heads a vast business empire, has been able to surmount both challenges. This study shows how Kuok successfully turned three important sources of identity into strengths: family, dialect, and the state. These three sources are set against his Johor Bahru background, the changing domestic political landscape, and shifting regional economic influence. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and the Economic History Society of Australia and New Zealand.
  • Boonmongkon, Pimpawun, Timo T. Ojanen, Ronnapoom Samakkeekarom, Nattharat Samoh, Rachawadee Iamsilpa, Soifa Topananan, Mudjalin Cholratana, and Thomas E. Guadamuz. "‘She Met Her (Boy)Friend Online’: Negotiating Gender Identity and Sexuality among Young Thai Women in Online Space." Culture, Health & Sexuality 15, no. 10 (2013/11/01 2013): 1162-74.
    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13691058.2013.809609
Abstract
This paper focuses on the experiences of women 15–24 years old living in one suburban district in Bangkok. Its objectives are to analyse processes of building and negotiating social identity and femininity in online spaces by young women; the ways in which young women express their sexuality using online technologies; connections between the ‘online’ and ‘offline’ worlds in terms of emotions as well as social and sexual networks; and traditional values regarding female sexuality reproduced through online media and how young women negotiate and resist these. Content and narrative analyses were conducted using qualitative data from 9 focus-group discussions and 14 narrative interviews. Findings indicated that the online media serve as tools that help young women develop and express their gender identities. Mobile phones and the Internet facilitate communication in order to express love, responsibility, intimacy and sexual desires. Discourse on women's chastity, which puts pressure on women to maintain their virginity, still influences online and mobile contents, messages and images among young women. However, women also exerted agency in negotiating and expressing their sexuality, both online and offline.
Abstract
Consumers become more concerned about the products they consume as they become aware of the benefits of third-party certification marks on product packaging and advertisements. Consumers look for food product packaging that includes information such as GMO free, organic, eco-friendly, country of origin or religiously based labels, such as kosher and Halal. This study examined the impact of a Halal certification mark as both an advertisement and a signifier of third-party certification for non-Muslims in Malaysia. The results show that non-Muslims do not think that advertisement with Halal certification mark is offensive. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis shows that sensitivity toward advertisement is positively related to attitudes toward advertisements, and that attitudes toward advertisements have a significant and positive relationship with behavioral outcomes. These findings enhance understanding of the effect of advertisement with Halal certification mark on non-Muslim consumers in Malaysia.
Abstract
Using a novel data set from my household survey in a sub-urban district of Hanoi, Vietnam, this study is the first attempt using an econometric approach to investigate the relationship between farmland loss (due to urbanization and industrialization) and households’ livelihood strategies. The results from the multinomial logit model provide the first econometric evidence that land loss increases with the probability of households adopting a strategy specializing in a single nonfarm activity (informal paid jobs or household businesses) or diversifying in many activities. This suggests that many households have actively coped with the shock of losing land. Such adaptation strategies in the new context can help mitigate their dependence on farmland as well as might help improve their welfare. Therefore, a possible implication here is that the rising of land loss should not be seen as an absolutely negative phenomenon because it can improve household welfare by motivating households to change or diversify their livelihoods. Besides, some household asset-related variables such as education, farmland, and the prime location of houses were found to be closely associated with participation in nonfarm activities. Based on evidence from the econometric analyses, the study proposes some policy recommendations that may help households diversify or specialize in lucrative nonfarm activities, given the context of shrinking farmland due to rapid urbanization in Hanoi’s sub-urban areas.
Abstract
This research is a qualitative research with case study approach aimed to find out the existence and the effect of sex tourism habitus in Bandungan, Central Java, Indonesia.The data source used in this research was primary data obtained directly from commercial sexual workers, coordinator of commercial sexual workers (procurer or pimp); inn guest escort (mediator) consisting of hotel employees, tukang ojek, tukang sate; as well as apparatus, people surrounding and Local Government. The secondary data used to support the primary data was previous studies relevant to sex tourism, news in printed media, and documentation taken during the research. Techniques of collecting data were in-depth interview, direct observation and documentation. The data analysis was an interactive model of analysis. The prostitutes in Bandungan were called tukang sate (sate seller). Generally they come from outside local areas such as Kendal, Rembang, Semarang, Surakarta, Wonosobo, and so on. Some of them operate openly but some other disguisedly as karaoke guides, beauty salon employees, and massage center employees. They did not hawk themselves directly, but through agent (mediator) connecting them to the tourists. The mediators were hotel employees, tukang ojek and tukang sate. Most sexual tourists came from out of Bandungan. All of them serve as the agent in sex tourism habitus in Bandungan. The large number of hotels, inns, lodgings, and entertainment centers such as karaoke automatically opened the job opportunity for the surrounding people so that they accept their existence. The prostitutes paid sufficiently attention to health problem by routinely having their health examined. When some of them developed Sexual Infectious Disease, they would be referred to Ambarawa Local General Hospital and prohibited from catering the guest except they had been cured.
Abstract
Innovative work behavior plays a central role in the long-term survival of knowledge-intensive business services in Malaysia. Even though innovation and creativity and their influences on the Malaysian economy and its future growth are important, research on this area is still inadequate. Underpinned by the Social Exchange Theory, this empirical study attempts to determine the relationship that may exist between pro-innovation climate, leader-member exchange (LMX), and social capital with the innovative work behavior (IWB) among the knowledge workers in the KIBS sector in Malaysia. A quantitative method was utilized and a total of 1520 questionnaires was distributed and resulted in 20.6% response rate. The results revealed that there were significant relationship between pro-innovation climate, social capital and leader-member exchange with the innovative work behavior of knowledge workers. In addition, among the three independent variables, pro-innovation climate had been found to be the most significant predictor of innovative work behavior. © Canadian Center of Science and Education.
Abstract
This study investigates the relationship between the firms' internal corporate governance mechanisms with audit fee in Malaysia. Different to other study conducted previously, this study also looks at the objectives of the study from the perspective of the newly introduced Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance (MCCG 2007) which was introduced in October 2007. The data consisted of a sample of 300 companies in Bursa Malaysia from pre-MCCG 2007 (year 2006) to post-MCCG 2007 (year 2008) (900 firm-years). Ordinary least square (OLS) regression method was utilized to analyze audit fee hypotheses developed. It was found that in general MCCG 2007 influenced the determinants of audit fee through the restructuring of corporate governance monitoring tools such as audit committee and internal audit function. Future research is recommended to study the impact of MCCG 2007 in a more specific manner such as to incorporate qualitative data and use longer time frame.
Abstract
This article presents an alternative theoretical framework to account for the political transition in Indonesia in 1998. Challenging the mainstream literature, which focuses on the presumed significance of civil society, the article claims that so-called democratization in Indonesia offered a mechanism through which to reorganize the distribution of patronage within the state. The transition was caused not by assertive civil society but Suharto's excessive centralization of patronage networks, which had the effect of alienating a significant proportion of the regime elite. Against this backdrop, democratization facilitated a decentralization of previously centralized patronage networks and a redistribution of spoils within the state towards elites that had been excluded from Suharto's inner circle.
Abstract
The special issue focuses on outward foreign direct investment from economically thriving Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries and India. The first part of this issue emphasizes on quantitative analysis of the relationship between firms' internal capabilities, innovation and external linkages, including outward foreign investments. The second part concentrates on case studies of ASEAN and Indian firms pursuing outward foreign investments. We compared and contrasted their motives, modes, interactions with local suppliers and customers, and innovation outputs of their investments abroad.
Abstract
This paper presents five facts of industry upgrading of emerging multinationals with and without foreign affiliates. This paper studies product and process innovation and investment in technologies and management practices as industry upgrading. Firm-level evidence from Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam suggests that there are not significant differences in innovation and investment between firms with foreign affiliates and firms without foreign affiliates, but there are sizable differences in organizational changes across locations of foreign affiliates. Firms’ self-reported buyer and supplier data also suggest spillover effects between downstream and upstream firms within a single global or local production chain. We establish five facts about intra-firm management practices and inter-firm relationships in production networks within southeast Asia as follows: (1) Firms are more likely to extend the geographic scope of their foreign platforms if they run both exporting and importing; (2) firm size and R&D sales ration play a role of foreign platforms in ASEAN, Europe, and the USA, but these have no effects on foreign platforms in east Asia; (3) emerging multinationals do not achieve product development if they have foreign platforms in east Asia while they achieve product development if they establish foreign platforms in Europe and the USA and (4) the type of organizational process improvements vary with locations of foreign platforms, i.e. foreign platforms in Europe and the USA can deliver knowledge about higher quality products instead of prohibiting new intermediate inputs; (5) emerging multinationals are more likely to share information with supplier for quality control within a production chain if they have foreign affiliates in Japan. These facts first serve as a basis of the intra- and inter-firm managerial practices of a global production chain in emerging markets.
Abstract
Over the last 10 years or so, Indian companies have been going global and investing abroad. In fact, India has become, along with China, a major investor in industrial projects abroad. In this process, a selected number of Indian companies have become MNCs in their own right having manufacturing operations in a range of countries, both developed and developing and in manufacturing and service sectors. The outward foreign direct investment from India has been continuously increasing until 2008 or so when the global financial crisis seems to have reduced the rate of increase. In the context, the study looks at the experiences of three leading domestic automotive firms, Tata and Mahindra which have gone abroad and taken over both vehicle manufacturers and input suppliers. The main motive has been the desire of these enterprises to become important automotive manufacturers not just in India, but also in the world. Their outward investments have also resulted in considerable knowledge transfers from and to the parent company based in India.
Abstract
This study explores linkages developed by firms from Malaysia when investing in other emerging or developing economies – also known as South–South Linkages. The interest is what production and knowledge networks that are emerging and how these links or networks developed help the firms in terms of capability development and innovation. In addition to linkages, we relook at what drives the firms and the organization forms to invest abroad. Findings from the cases indicate that while the drivers for internationalization or outward foreign direct investment by Malaysian firms are essentially market seeking, the role of supportive government policies is a critical external driver. There is also clear understanding by the organizations that the move to emerging/developing economies needs a long-term strategy for realization of benefits. In terms of South–South linkages, they can be seen in two phases – one is the linkages developed for the move into emerging/developing economies and second phase is the linkages developed for doing business in the new location. The study shows that the linkages are still vertical with suppliers and parent companies and there are very little horizontal linkages. What is interesting is the implications for innovation.
  • Jeenanunta, Chawalit, Nattharika Rittippant, Pornpimol Chongphaisal, Apiwan Thumsamisorn, and Thunyalak Visanvetchakij. "Knowledge Transfer of Outward Foreign Direct Investment by Thai Multinational Enterprises." Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 21, no. sup1 (2013): 64-81.
    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19761597.2013.819234
Abstract
The study focuses on Thai outward investment. We investigated the key reasons to invest and the process of knowledge transfer. This study provides three cases of Thai multinational enterprises (MNEs) that are successful in their oversea investment. According to our cases, the key reasons for investing oversea include market expansion, resource seeking and capability augmenting. Thai MNEs also actively looked for the strategic position for future market expansion in developing countries. Moreover, Thai MNEs also learned the new technological know-how and cutting-edge technology from developed countries.
Abstract
Although Philippine FDI outflows still lag behind some of its ASEAN neighbours, there are an increasing number of Philippine transnational corporations successfully investing abroad. This study focusing on four large indigenous firms provides insights on their international knowledge flows and the factors contributing to their technology strategies and innovation activities. This paper finds that market expansion activities increase learning in firms that extend knowledge and technical assistance from the home office to affiliates in host countries. Firms augment their capabilities and experience through long-term relationships with partners in production networks, in particular with suppliers who provide support for in-house innovation.
Abstract
This article discusses technology transfer through outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) by Indonesian natural resource-based multinational enterprises (MNEs), including motives of OFDI and modes and path of technology transfer through OFDI. First, the motives of OFDI by Indonesian MNEs are to: (i) have a better position in controlling the market, (ii) make the production centre closer to the market, (iii) develop brand image in foreign market, and (iv) exploit resources in host countries and encourage MNEs to be more innovative. Second, the modes of technology transfer are through: (i) on-the-job training, (ii) assigning staff overseas, (iii) regular meetings, and (iv) appointing talented management. Third, technology transfer corresponds to objectives of MNEs’ expansion and its network evolution. Its path follows the S-curve of technology transfer through OFDI. It implies that Indonesian government policies should (i) encourage firms to attain high innovative capability by providing investment fund for joint R&D on the national champion project, overseas market intelligence for OFDI, and co-investment on the strategic project for OFDI, and (ii) maintain a conducive investment climate, stable economic growth, and high consumer demand to drive local firms to become MNEs by facilitating the establishment of cluster and MNEs’ network.
Binh, Truong Thi Chi, and Nguyen Manh Linh. "Supplier System and Knowledge Transfer within the Production Networks of Electronics MNCs in Vietnam." Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 21, no. sup1 (2013): 119-38.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19761597.2013.819237
Abstract
The electronics industry has seen a very strong growth in Vietnam in the last few years. The majority of the emerging industries are foreign direct investment (FDI) enterprises with a significant contribution to gross domestic product. However, many of them are export-processing enterprises with low localization rates and low localization efforts. In addition to creating jobs and generating export sales, the real value that Vietnam has earned from the FDI by electronics groups is not clear. Therefore, the development of the supplier system, which can receive technological transfers from FDI enterprises, is most essential in the initial development stages of the country. This report demonstrates the decisive role of the supplier system in knowledge transfer within the production networks of multinational corporations, including FDI and domestic enterprises, for sustainable development of the Vietnamese electronics industry.
  • Cheng, Ming Yu, Amir Mahmood, and Peik Foong Yeap. "Malaysia as a regional education hub: a demand-side analysis." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 35, no. 5 (2013): 523-536.
    DOI: 10.1080/1360080X.2013.825412
Abstract
Malaysia is becoming an increasingly active player in international education and ranks as the 11th largest exporter of education in the world. Malaysia's recognisable advantages in the international education market include its strategic location between the East and the West, cultural diversity, and a relatively stable socio-economic environment. In addition to these natural advantages, it is important for the Malaysian Government and its higher education institutions to develop a holistic strategy to create a conducive learning environment and to build a regional higher education hub. By taking a demand-side approach, this study highlights factors attracting foreign students to study in Malaysia. Rich information about the country and learning institution and referral by family and friends appear to be the most important sources of influence for foreign students to choose Malaysia. Other considerations include cost and quality of educational programmes, while geographical and cultural proximity are less important than expected. © 2013 © Association for Tertiary Education Management and the LH Martin Institute for Tertiary Education Leadership and Management.
Abstract
International development agencies often promote approaches that link aid and peacebuilding. However, the gap between what agencies say and what they actually do is demonstrated by the mixed response to subnational conflict in Thailand's Far South between 2007 and 2012. Over this period, numerous agencies demonstrated little interest in addressing the conflict. Some agencies did over time try to support peacebuilding, although domestic government resistance and practical barriers generated obstacles. Conflict guidelines and toolkits were rarely used, while only a few agencies implemented the context-driven and knowledge-based approaches to local partnerships that peace promotion in a complex and politically sensitive environment demands.
Abstract
As US Vice President Joe Biden told journalists when he visited Singapore in late July, his country and the city-state not only enjoy mutually beneficial economic ties, but also important, wide-ranging defence and security cooperation. © 2013 The International Institute for Strategic Studies.









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