Apr 28, 2014

2nd & 3rd Week of April Update on Academic articles

Here is the list of academic articles recorded from Database during the second and the third week of April:

Marcus, Mietzner. "How Indonesia Won a Constitution." Journal of Democracy 25, no. 2 (April 2014): 171-75.
DOI: 10.1353/jod.2014.0023

Scholars of democratization generally agree that constitutions play a key role in determining the outcome of democratic transitions. Welldrafted constitutions can serve as a solid foundation for young democracies, while flawed charters often lead to unstable polities and, in some cases, democratic reversals. Experts also tend to concur that it is not only the substantive content of constitutions that matters for postauthoritarian trajectories—the process through which constitutions get produced is of equal importance. But the agreement ends there.

Observers of constitution-making processes are deeply divided over how best to write a charter: Some (like Jon Elster) believe that the task of constitution-drafting is best handed to a special independent committee whose members are not legislators. Others (John M. Carey, for example) contend that constitutions should be written by directly elected representatives. There are similar disagreements over the most suitable sequence of debating and passing a constitution: While some favor a speedy drafting process followed by a referendum and elections, others recommend the reverse—elections first, after which the newly instituted government and legislature can take their time reaching a consensus on controversial constitutional issues.

Hardjosoekarto, Sudarsono, Nadia Yovani, and Lea Santiar. "Institutional Strengthening for the Role of Mass Media in Disaster Risk Reduction in Japan and Indonesia: An Application of Ssm-Based Action Research." [In English]. Systemic Practice and Action Research 27, no. 3 (2014): 227-46.

DOI 10.1007/s11213-013-9282-z
This paper explores institutional strengthening for the role of mass media in disaster risk reduction, in Japan and in Indonesia. Although this research is a comparative study in nature, the ultimate goal of this exploration is to identify policy recommendations for parties concerns in disaster risk reduction in Indonesia. Soft systems methodology-based action research (Checkland and Scholes 1990; Uchiyama 2009; Hardjosoekarto 2012, 2013) is conducted in Indonesia and in Japan. This research is a business change practice/empirical research practice in the words of Cronholm and Goldkuhl (2003). In this paper, how the institutional strengthening for the role of mass media in disaster risk reduction that could be achieved through strengthening three tier institutional frameworks (Nee 2003) at macro, meso and micro levels, respectively, is elaborated. This study provides an illustration of a comparative study-like SSM-based action research in action, in which debating on Indonesian case is conducted by using relevant purposeful activity systems that are selected and conceptual models that are developed from Japan’s experiences.

Hui, Dennis Lai Hang. "Combating Financial Crimes in Hong Kong and Singapore and the Quest for Competitiveness: A Political Economy Perspective." Journal of Comparative Asian Development 13, no. 1 (2014): 3-30.

Despite the growing policy attention to financial crimes, theoretical discussions about the policies that the state has pursued to deal with this problem have been lacking. This paper develops a theoretical framework to understand the politics of financial crimes. It argues that policy efforts against financial crimes pursued by the state can be explained with reference to the financialization of the global economy and the quest for global competitiveness. At the same time, these global forces are mediated by the dynamics of domestic politics, which determines the pace and the scope of financial regulation. This paper then applies this theoretical framework to explain the differences between Hong Kong and Singapore in their efforts to deal with financial crimes. The difference in terms of their regulatory thrusts in financial affairs relates to their divergent economic ideologies. The final part of this paper highlights the key challenges that Shanghai is facing in dealing with financial crimes with reference to the relevant historical experiences of Hong Kong and Singapore.

Vasu, Norman, and Damien D. Cheong. "Narratives and Governance: The Eroding Corporatist Narrative of Governance in Singapore." Journal of Comparative Asian Development 13, no. 1 (2014): 105-30.

This article takes a critical look at the corporatist narrative of governance in Singapore and argues that the corporatist narrative is losing its narrative rationality. Narrative rationality is being lost through large-scale immigration to Singapore. The implication of this loss of narrative rationality is significant for continued rule by the People's Action Party (PAP), which will have to struggle to either repair the narrative rationality of corporatism or seek another alternative narrative that is more intelligible in order to continue to maintain the party's narrative dominance of the political space in Singapore.

Arifianto, Alexander R. "Unpacking the Results- Indonesian Legislative Election."  ISEAS Perspective 2014, no. #24 (2014).

- The recently concluded 2014 legislative elections in Indonesia produced several unexpected results, as the heavily favored PDIP party failed to reach its electoral targets, despite the popularity of its presidential candidate, Jakarta Governor Joko Widodo (Jokowi).
- PDIP’s failure to win more popular votes during these elections can be attributed to the lack of campaign advertisements promoting Jokowi as its presidential candidate, local-level campaign dynamics, possible vote- buying, and the internal rivalry between supporters of Jokowi and support- ers of party-chairwoman Megawati Sukarnoputri.
- The success of the Islamic parties in increasing their vote share during these elections is not the result of their increased popularity among Indonesian voters. Instead, it is the result of their strategy to recoup the votes they had lost during the 2009 elections.

Da, Sanchita Basu. "Growing Economic Diplomacy in Asean: Opportunities and Threats."  ISEAS Perspective 2014, no. #22 (2014).
- Globalisation has increasingly made economic diplomacy a key compo- nent of foreign policy. Since production decisions made by Transnational Corporations (TNCs) are influenced by various domestic factors, the role of host governments has become more important for example in keep- ing transaction costs low. Participating in free trade agreements (FTAs) that go beyond trade in goods and services to include non-tariff barriers, government procurement, competition policy, and intellectual property protection is one key mechanism for keeping such costs low and through this attract foreign direct investment (FDI).
- FTAs involving ASEAN countries have introduced a structured and government-to-government form of cooperation that is redefining the balance of economic power. This can be observed in the growing number of such arrangements, and symbolises not only greater economic opportunity but also closer political ties.
- ASEAN states have adapted to this new trend of diplomacy at four levels (global, trans-regional, regional and bilateral) and its related strategic and political alignments. The positive effects of growing ASEAN economic diplomacy, in addition to lowering business costs, are also observed in technology and skills transfer and infrastructure investment.
- Economic diplomacy is said to have its advantages. It generates higher economic growth, efficiency, transparency and ease of doing business in a country. However, its benefits face risks as well — issues of non- traditional security, China using its growing economic leverage in territorial disputes, rising nationalistic sentiments and other political-economic issues.
- Going forward, one should note that economic diplomacy is a dynamic process that changes with new realities. It is a pursuit of all countries, provided they grow at a robust pace. However, to succeed in economic diplomacy, a country needs a skilled pool of policy makers and private sector actors who can understand and negotiate key economic and trade issues.
- For the ASEAN economies, assuming the status quo, as long as they continue to deliver on robust economic growth and there is a cooperative stance towards each other, economic diplomacy can be seen as a ‘positive-sum’ game in the years to come.

Hiep, Le Hong. "Will Development Lead to Democratisation in Vietnam and China?"  ISEAS Perspective 2014, no. #23 (2014).

- Although a country’s level of socio-economic development may offer an important indicator to how likely it will democratise or remain undemo- cratic, a more plausible answer can be found in the country’s specific political, historical, socio-economic and cultural conditions.
- After three decades or so of economic reforms, the key “social requisites” for democracy in both China and Vietnam have strengthened, including growing levels of wealth, industrialization, education, and urbanization. As such, China and Vietnam now stand out as the most likely candidates for the next “wave of democratisation” in the region.
- This ability on the part of the two regimes to resist democratic pres- sures will be a key factor in determining the democratisation prospects in both countries. In addition, although maintaining a positive socio- economic performance is needed for their survival at least in the short run, it unavoidably also sows the seeds of their self-destruction in the long run.
- However, both countries continue to sustain communist rule, through the respective government’s ability to adapt to the changing environ- ment by introducing limited and well-tailored political reforms aimed at promoting good governance and the efficiency of the state apparatus. As such, there have been no credible signs that either China or Vietnam will democratise any time soon.

Sani, Mohd Azizuddin Mohd. "Changes Remain Unclear after Malaysia’s Kajang by-Election."  ISEAS Perspective 2014, no. #21 (2014).

- The recent Kajang by-election was held after its state assemblyman resigned to allow Anwar Ibrahim to contest for the position in the state legislature, and purportedly subsequently to become chief minister of the Selangor state. This change in state leadership was seen as a way to strengthen the Pakatan Rakyat (PR) government in the state, which is in apparent crisis resulting from infighting between Chief Minister Tan Sri Khalid Ibrahim and Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR) Deputy President Azmin Ali.
- In the event, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, who is PKR president, replaced her husband, Anwar Ibrahim, as candidate after the latter was disqualified from running. MCA heavyweight Chew Mei Fun was nominated by her party to run against her.
- The results saw an increased victory margin of 19 per cent for PKR, which managed to gain more support from the Malay community. While both parties recorded less Chinese votes because of the lower turnout from that community, the drop in support was larger for PKR than for Barisan Nasional (BN). The results also showed a slight shift in Malay votes to PKR.
- However, the overall results showed that many Chinese voted for party rather than for ethnic affiliation.
- While the results should no significant overall change from the result of the general election held last year, the inclusion of Wan Azizah in Selangor is expected to help resolve PKR’s internal crisis in time for its party elec- tion scheduled to be held in May 2014.

Spulbăr, Cristi, and Mihai Niţoi. "Determinants of bank cost efficiency in transition economies: evidence for Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe and South-East Asia." Applied Economics 46, no. 16 (2014): 1940-1952.
DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2014.889806
In this study, we adopt Wang's (2002) heteroscedastic stochastic frontier model, which allows us to investigate bank cost efficiency and to measure the marginal effects of some variables on both the level and the variability of inefficiency. In recent years, the financial crisis has significantly affected the banking systems of the transition countries. Hence, the efficiency is of major importance for the stability of the banks. Regarding the determinants of efficiency, we find evidence that banks that follow a more cautious strategy, characterized by lower risk appetite and average expectations on profitability, have higher cost efficiency. We also find that traditional deposit-taking and loan-making still remain the most efficient activity of the banks. Additionally, the results showed that a higher Gross Domestic Product growth rate implies an increase in the inefficiency level, indicating an unsustainable bank management behaviour, which in periods of economic growth adopts policies that can generate inefficiency in order to gain market share and to obtain higher bonuses. Country cost efficiency results show significant differences. The banking systems in transition countries in South Eastern Asia appear to have a higher cost efficiency level. Also, the effects of the financial crisis were less significant in this region. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Minhat, Marizah, and Mazni Abdullah. "Executive compensation in government-linked companies: evidence from Malaysia." Applied Economics 46, no. 16 (2014): 1861-1872.

DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2014.887192


The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of executive pay, equity ownership incentives and pay-performance relationship in government-controlled firms. Data were hand-collected from the annual reports of 179 companies listed on Bursa Malaysia. The results show that executive pay is lower in government-linked companies. Positive pay-performance relationship is also not evident for this category of firms, which indicates that their executives were largely guaranteed with certain level of pay irrespective of performance. The level of equity ownership incentives provides the executives in government-controlled firms with very little incentive to produce effort that can improve firm performance. Overall, our findings are consistent with the inefficient pay hypothesis developed in this study. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Saksena, S., J. Fox, J. Spencer, M. Castrence, M. DiGregorio, M. Epprecht, N. Sultana, et al. "Classifying and Mapping the Urban Transition in Vietnam." Applied Geography 50 (2014): 80-89.

DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.02.010


The urban transition almost always involves wrenching social adjustment as small agricultural communities are forced to adjust rapidly to industrial ways of life. Large-scale in-migration of young people, usually from poor regions, creates enormous demand and expectations for community and social services. One immediate problem planners face in approaching this challenge is how to define, differentiate, and map what is rural, urban, and transitional (i.e., peri-urban). This project established an urban classification for Vietnam by using national census and remote sensing data to identify and map the smallest administrative units for which data are collected as rural, peri-urban, urban, or urban core. We used both natural and human factors in the quantitative model: income from agriculture, land under agriculture and forests, houses with modern sanitation, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Model results suggest that in 2006, 71% of Vietnam's 10,891 communes were rural, 18% peri-urban, 3% urban, and 4% urban core. Of the communes our model classified as peri-urban, 61% were classified by the Vietnamese government as rural. More than 7% of Vietnam's land area can be classified as peri-urban and approximately 13% of its population (more than 11 million people) lives in peri-urban areas. We identified and mapped three types of peri-urban places: communes in the periphery of large towns and cities; communes along highways; and communes associated with provincial administration or home to industrial, energy, or natural resources projects (e.g., mining). We validated this classification based on ground observations, analyses of multi-temporal night-time lights data, and an examination of road networks. The model provides a method for rapidly assessing the rural-urban nature of places to assist planners in identifying rural areas undergoing rapid change with accompanying needs for investments in building, sanitation, road infrastructure, and government institutions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Urano, Mariko. "Impacts of newly liberalised policies on customary land rights of forest‐dwelling populations: A case study from East Kalimantan, Indonesia." Asia Pacific Viewpoint 55, no. 1 (2014): 6-23.

DOI: 10.1111/apv.12042


Based on interviews and participant observation conducted in the province of East Kalimantan, Indonesia, from 2008 to 2012, this paper examines why the agrarian reforms have failed to secure the land rights of local farmers. Since the fall of the authoritarian government in 1998, Indonesia has seen limited, but growing government recognition of customary land rights of local farmers living in forest areas. I present a case study of two villages, in which the greater discretion on the part of the local community to negotiate with large-scale oil palm estates has led to the abuse of power by local elites, as well as territorial tensions between local communities. The finding questions the optimistic view that state recognition of customary land rights of communities would automatically lead to the security of landownership of local farmers, and its underlying image of harmonious local communities in which members share coherent interests. The agrarian reform that has centred on communities' rights of control over land and natural resources is problematic. When local communities do not possess capabilities for resolving conflicts in an equitable and transparent manner, third-party intervention is needed to assist communities to strengthen local land rights. © 2014 The Author. Asia Pacific Viewpoint published by Victoria University of Wellington and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Rubin, Olivier. "Social Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Natural Disasters: Cross-Provincial Evidence from Vietnam." Asia Pacific Viewpoint 55, no. 1 (2014): 67-80.

DOI: 10.1111/apv.12037


This paper conducts an analysis of the socioeconomic determinants of Vietnam's cross-provincial variations in natural disaster vulnerability. The purpose is twofold: (i) to capture disaggregated vulnerability variations normally obscured by national statistics, thereby providing more nuanced insights into Vietnam's vulnerability to natural disasters; and (ii) to take advantage of the fact that the overall political system and key institutional structures to a large extent are constant across Vietnam's provinces, which makes the analysis a novel addition to the many disaster studies based on cross-national variations. The paper's analysis indicates that much of Vietnam's cross-provincial variations in natural disaster fatalities and economic costs can be explained by differences in key socioeconomic factors. High provincial rates of inequality, poverty and infant mortality, for instance, appear to drive up natural disaster fatalities. Local adaptation efforts should focus as much on these broader socioeconomic dimensions as they focus on the geophysical susceptibility to natural hazards of individual areas. © 2014 Victoria University of Wellington and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Menon, Jayant, and Hal Hill. "Does East Asia Have a Working Financial Safety Net?." Asian Economic Journal 28, no. 1 (2014): 1-17.

DOI: 10.1111/asej.12022


Financial safety nets in Asia have come a long way since the Asian financial crisis (AFC) of 1997/1998. With Asian countries not wanting to rely solely on the IMF again, the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI) was created in 2000. When the CMI also proved inadequate following the global financial crisis, it was first multilateralized (CMIM), and then doubled in size to US$240bn, while the IMF de-linked portion was increased to 30 percent of the available country quotas. A surveillance unit, the ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic Research Office, was set up in 2001. These are impressive developments, but are they enough to make the CMIM workable? Without clear and rapid-response procedures to handle a fast-developing financial emergency, we argue that it is unlikely that the CMIM will be used even as a complement to the IMF. To serve as a stand-alone option, however, its size or the IMF de-linked portion of funds needs to be further increased, as does its membership, to add diversity. Only if the ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic Research Office can develop into an independent and credible surveillance authority would it then perhaps be in a position to lead the next rescue. © 2014 East Asian Economic Association and Wiley Publishing Pty Ltd.

Yoshimi, Taiyo. "Lending Rate Spread Shock and Monetary Policy Arrangements: A Small Open Economy Model for Asean Countries." Asian Economic Journal 28, no. 1 (2014): 19-39.

DOI: 10.1111/asej.12023


We investigate the welfare implications of monetary policy arrangements in a small open economy, considering firms' bank-based finances that are widely observed in emerging ASEAN countries. The impact of an unexpected change in the lending rate spread, or a lending rate spread shock, depends on the presence of banking activity in the economy. This presence is important in Malaysia and Vietnam, where welfare effects of this type of shock are at least comparable to those of foreign monetary policy shocks. We also find that a rigid exchange rate arrangement amplifies the effect of a shock. © 2014 East Asian Economic Association and Wiley Publishing Pty Ltd.

Mani, Subha. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Child Health: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia." Asian Economic Journal 28, no. 1 (2014): 81-104.

DOI: 10.1111/asej.12026


This paper characterizes the socioeconomic determinants of child health using height-for-age z-score (HAZ), a long-run measure of chronic nutritional deficiency. We construct a panel data that follows children between ages 3 and 59 months in 1993 through the 1997 and 2000 waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey. We use this data to identify the various child-level, household-level and community-level factors that affect children's health. Our findings indicate that household income has a large and statistically significant role in explaining improvements in HAZ. We also find a strong positive association between parental height and HAZ. At the community level, we find that provision of electricity and the availability of paved roads are positively associated with improvements in HAZ. Finally, in comparison to community-level factors, household-level characteristics play a large role in explaining the variation in HAZ. These findings suggest that policies that address the demand-side constraints have greater potential to improve children's health outcomes in the future. © 2014 East Asian Economic Association and Wiley Publishing Pty Ltd.

Aviliani, Aviliani, Hermanto Siregar, and Heni Hasanah. "Addressing the Middle-Income Trap: Experience of Indonesia." Asian Social Science 10, no. 7 (2014): p163.

DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n7p163


Middle-income trap (MIT) refers to a condition in which the middle-income countries are not able to follow the trajectory of an economic growth to achieve a new level as high-income countries. Using descriptive analysis, more than 30 countries are found to experience MIT including China and India. Some of countries in Africa are even experiencing low-income trap. Between 1970 and 2011 Indonesia was actually in a transition condition of low-income to middle-income economy. Indonesia has begun to face constraints that would inhibit the sustained growth, particularly on the supply side of the economy. It is better to do the anticipatory actions that can strengthen the economy's fundamentals in order to avoid MIT. The estimated regression model used in this study indicates that the increase in current national income is affected by the previous national income and the share of gross fixed capital formation to GDP. So, to avoid MIT, the government of Indonesia should prioritize on investment for developing growth centers as well as for improving human resources and technology application.

Sanglaoid, Utis, Sumalee Santipolvut, and Rewat Thamma Apiroam. "Determinants of Intra-ASEAN Labour Migration to Thailand." Asian Social Science 10, no. 8 (2014): p66.

DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n8p66


This paper aims at analyzing the determinants of intra-ASEAN labor migration to Thailand, for the period 2002-2010. We apply the well-known Hatton's migration model to our analysis. Having employed panel data through fixed effect model estimations, we find that the GDP gaps between Thailand and the migrant countries, migration stocks which reflect the existence of immigrant networks, and Thailand's migration worker policy all play a crucial role in explaining migration behaviors. A policy implication is that the government of Thailand should pay more attention to its coherent migration worker policy, since it affects the net migration rate, evidently.

Nethery, Amy, and Carly Gordyn. "Australia–Indonesia Cooperation on Asylum-Seekers: A Case of ‘Incentivised Policy Transfer’." Australian Journal of International Affairs 68, no. 2 (2014/03/15 2013): 177-93.

DOI: 10.1080/10357718.2013.841122


Australia and Indonesia have engaged in cooperation on asylum policy since the late 1990s, bilaterally on immigration detention and people-smuggling agreements, and multilaterally through the Bali Process. Seen from a global perspective, this form of cooperation is one of many such bilateral and multilateral agreements that stymie the ability of asylum-seekers to gain effective and durable protection. This article argues that policy transfer theory can explain how these agreements are achieved, their political implications, and their outcome for the refugee regime and the asylum-seekers reliant on the regime for protection. In the case study of Australia and Indonesia, the authors argue that the cooperation is best understood as a form of 'incentivised policy transfer', whereby Australia has provided substantial financial and diplomatic incentives to Indonesia to adopt policies consistent with Australia's own. The implications for asylum-seekers in the Asia-Pacific region are substantial, and include an increase in the use of immigration detention in Indonesia and the introduction of border security measures that restrict the ability of asylum-seekers to reach territory where they may claim protection under the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. © 2013 © 2013 Australian Institute of International Affairs.

Reeves, Jeffrey. "Structural Power, the Copenhagen School and Threats to Chinese Security." The China Quarterly 217 (2014): 140-61.

DOI: 10.1017/S0305741013001458


This article engages with current debates surrounding China's security by employing the concept of structural power and the Copenhagen School approach to security studies to measure threats to China's security. Building on existing Chinese and English language research on China's security drivers, the article develops a mechanism for determining how China's economic relations with small states in Asia negatively affect their domestic stability and how this instability then loops back to undermine China's strategic position. The article uses China's relations with Cambodia, Nepal and Mongolia as case studies. © 2014 The China Quarterly.

Yeoh, Brenda S.A., and Maria Andrea Soco. "The Cosmopolis and the Migrant Domestic Worker." Cultural Geographies 21, no. 2 (April 1, 2014 2014): 171-87.

DOI: 10.1177/1474474014520899


The cosmopolitan city has been hailed a necessary response to the empirical reality of globalizing multicultural cities. We follow Shah in arguing that the 'assumed equivalence between cosmopolitanism and global' needs more careful attention, and suggest three ways in which the assumption may be unpicked. First, discourses on the cosmopolis tend to focus on a masculinized version of cosmopolitanism, usually equated with creativity and public civility as accompanying conditions for developing productive relations in business and enterprise. More needs to be said about whether cosmopolitan ideals and realities feature in feminized privatized spheres, including those of 'carework' and 'domestic work'. Second, attention needs to be given to understanding how cosmopolitanism at work in the global city shapes political membership. This requires attention to be given not just to settled individuals but also to the mobile-but-not-free populations, such as transnational domestic workers, a category in between Bauman's 'tourist' and 'vagabond'. Third, the inner workings of cosmopolitanism deserve greater attention, and this requires focusing on the everyday and personal expressions and negotiations of cosmopolitan ideals among different groups of people. These observations prompt us to give attention to identifying provisional changes in the subjectivities of Filipino domestic workers as potential working-class cosmopolitans upon migration to Singapore. By exploring changes in consumption patterns, possibilities for cultural learning, the development of new sensibilities and the negotiation of cultural differences, we argue for the value of including migrant domestic workers in discourses on cosmopolitanism and the emancipatory hope of recovering an openness to, and respect for, humanity despite the retrogressive contours of transnational domestic work. © The Author(s) 2013.

Garip, Filiz. "The Impact of Migration and Remittances on Wealth Accumulation and Distribution in Rural Thailand." [In English]. Demography 51, no. 2 (2014): 673-98.

DOI: 10.1007/s13524-013-0260-y


This article studies the impact of internal migration and remittance flows on wealth accumulation and distribution in 51 rural villages in Nang Rong, Thailand. Using data from 5,449 households, the study constructs indices of household productive and consumer assets with principal component analysis. The changes in these indices from 1994 to 2000 are modeled as a function of households' prior migration and remittance behavior with ordinary least squares, matching, and instrumental variable methods. The findings show that rich households lose productive assets with migration, potentially because of a reduction in the labor force available to maintain local economic activities, while poor households gain productive assets. Regardless of wealth status, households do not gain or lose consumer assets with migration or remittances. These results suggest an equalizing effect of migration and remittances on wealth distribution in rural Thailand. © 2013 Population Association of America.

Samuel, Moses, Mahmud Hasan Khan, Lee Luan Ng, and Kin Wai Cheang. "Articulation of Medium of Instruction Politics in the Malaysian Chinese Press." Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 35, no. 2 (2014): 206-18.

DOI: 10.1080/01596306.2012.745731


In postcolonial multilingual societies, matters of education are deeply rooted in the discourse of ethnicity. In Malaysia, the interface between ethnicity and education is reflected in recent debates on the choice of medium of instruction (MOI). In 2002, the Malaysian government introduced English as MOI by replacing Malay, the national language, for teaching mathematics and science, at the school level. However, in 2009, the policy was reversed to Malay. This policy initiative has been actively contested in the Malaysian media. Through an analysis of news reports on the controversy published by the Malaysian Chinese newspaper, Nanyang Siang Pao, this paper aims to illustrate how a sizeable ethnic minority is able to position itself vis-à-vis a national policy. To explain the ethno-political construction of MOI debates in the newspaper, we use two concepts, namely, 'plurality of struggles' (Laclau, 2006a, 2006b; Laclau & Mouffe, 1985) and 'transmission of the speech of others' (Bakhtin, 1981). These notions are contextualized in the macro-context of a multi-ethnic polity in which Chinese society, Chinese press and Chinese education are seen to co-construct community interests. © 2012 © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Ayo Wahlberg: Herbs, Laboratories, and Revolution: On the Making of a National Medicine in Vietnam, East Asian Science, Technology and Society (2014) 8(1): 43-56

DOI: 10.1215/18752160-2406625


This article examines the making of a national medicine in Vietnam. How can it be that the medical traditions in Vietnam came to be described as Vietnamese during the course of the twentieth century? In this article, I suggest that historical contingencies in Vietnam have facilitated what might be thought of as a "doctrine of combination," somewhat in contrast to the institutionalized and contentious separation of, for example, Chinese and Korean medicine from modern medicine. In particular, I show how when it came to traditional medicine, Hồ Chí Minh and the people around him responsible for health-care-related issues were on the "offensive" from the very outset of their nation-building efforts. © Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan 2014.

Estoque, Ronald C., and Yuji Murayama. "Social–Ecological Status Index: A Preliminary Study of Its Structural Composition and Application." Ecological Indicators 43 (2014): 183-94.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.02.031


Understanding the state of a social-ecological system (SES), a system that includes human and environmental subsystems interacting together, is important for socio-economic development and for natural resources and disaster management. However, what index or measure should be used to show the actual status of an SES remains an important research question. This paper presents the social-ecological status index (SESI), which measures social-ecological status based on social-ecological resilience and pressure. It is derived by using a spatially explicit framework that integrates various geophysical and socio-economic indicators. In this paper, its structural composition is explored and the proposed framework for deriving this index is compared with the current practice of evaluating SESs. Its relationship with certain other indicators is also assessed through a case study, thereby highlighting its application in the provinces of the Philippines. It is found that the SESI does not seem to favor either the human or the environmental dimensions of an SES. This is an important feature, indicating that the SESI is a neutral, more complete, and robust measure for social-ecological status assessment. With the increasing availability of geospatial and socio-economic data, the flexibility and adaptability of the framework allow the proposed index to be applied in other geographic locations, at the same time providing an avenue for its further development. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Martin, Samuel, and Julius Susanto. "Supplying Power to Remote Villages in Lao Pdr. — the Role of Off-Grid Decentralised Energy Options." Energy for Sustainable Development 19 (2014): 111-21.

DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2013.12.012


In Lao PDR, a least developed country in South-East Asia, provision of electricity to remote areas is a high priority for the Government, which has the objective of electrifying 90% of the population (in terms of number of households) by the year 2020. While this objective is commendable and tremendous progress has been made over the past 10 years in terms of rural electrification, some important questions remain unanswered. Currently, grid extension is the main technical option considered. One of the main reasons for this push for grid extension is the assumption that access to the grid means development. However, when analysed closely, the reality from the field is far more complex. Although grid electricity has tremendous potential to provide economic development opportunities in rural areas, it also has some drawbacks. In particular, productive activities fail to develop in many grid connected villages where the demand for electricity remains low even after a few years after having been grid electrified. This paper argues that alternative options to grid extension, e.g. off-grid decentralised renewable energy (DRE), exist, are often more attractive financially and could be promoted more effectively. These technologies can be cheaper than grid extension, even on a like-for-like comparison.22Comparing the cost of each option supplying the same amount of electricity (in kWh). DRE technologies also provide opportunities for development, even without driving large productive loads. These opportunities are presented in terms of 1) the flexibility of needs that DRE technologies can satisfy, 2) empowerment of rural communities and 3) decentralised decision making processes. So far, the promotion of DRE in Laos has not always been successful, but this should not be an argument against promoting these options. A close look at recent rural electrification project budgets reveals indeed that grid extension is far more subsidised than DRE, raising concerns about the social equity of such projects. © 2014 International Energy Initiative.

Sok, Serey, Xiaojiang Yu, and Koon-Kwai Wong. "Food Security in the Riverine Rural Communities of the Lower Mekong Basin, Cambodia." Forum for Development Studies 41, no. 1 (2014): 53-74.

DOI: 10.1080/08039410.2013.858077


Food security is a major issue in the struggle to attain sustainable development and poverty reduction in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB). In this article, we aim to determine food security situation in the rural riverine communities of the LMB, Cambodia. The degree and frequency of-and local responses to-food shortages and past, current and future trends in employment opportunities are analysed. In our detailed study of the Upper, Middle and Lower stretches along the LMB, we found that: (1) food insecurity exists in all three areas and has been mostly concentrated among the poor over the last decade; (2) there is a close association between food shortages and poverty, but no relationship between food shortages and its consequences; (3) local responses to food insecurity have proven ineffective leaving the villagers to deal with it by simply reducing their food consumption; and, (4) the existing local employment could not ensure food security and sustainable livelihoods of the villagers. The findings suggest that food security should be improved by rural economy and local employment; agriculture and irrigation advancement; social safety nets and community-based projects; and, distinction between chronic and transitory food insecurity in development programmes. © 2013 Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI).

Yusoff, Mohammed B. "Foreign direct investment, exports, education, and growth in Malaysia." Global Business and Economics Review 16, no. 2 (2014): 111-122.

DOI: 10.1504/GBER.2014.060180


Although it has been recognised that foreign direct investment (FDI), exports, and education are important ingredients in economic development, not much research has been carried out in developing countries to determine the effects of these three variables, taken together, on economic growth. Most of these studies focus on the effects of exports on growth or FDI on growth or exports and education on growth, and FDI on growth. This paper examines the relationship of these three variables together on economic growth using the cointegration technique, VECM, and the causality tests. The results suggest that real GDP per capita, exports, FDI and education spending are cointegrated. The estimated long-run relationship shows that exports, FDI and education expenditure could explain the variation in real GDP per capita. Both the Granger and Toda-Yamamoto causality tests support the hypothesis that exports, FDI and education expenditure cause economic growth with no feedback. These imply that the Malaysian export-oriented, liberal FDI and education development strategies have played important role in the development of Malaysian economy. © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Webb, Edward L., Nicholas R. A. Jachowski, Jacob Phelps, Daniel A. Friess, Maung Maung Than, and Alan D. Ziegler. "Deforestation in the Ayeyarwady Delta and the Conservation Implications of an Internationally-Engaged Myanmar." Global Environmental Change 24 (2014): 321-33.

DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.10.007


Myanmar is a country of huge biodiversity importance that is undergoing major political change, bringing with it new international engagement. This includes access to international markets, which will likely spur investment in export-oriented agriculture, leading to increased pressures on already threatened ecosystems. This scenario is illustrated in the Ayeyarwady Delta, the country's agricultural heartland sustaining high deforestation rates. Using the Delta as a model system, we use an integrated approach to inquire about whether and how imminent agricultural reforms associated with an internationally-engaged Myanmar could introduce new actors and incentives to invest in agricultural expansion that could affect deforestation rates. We use a novel remote sensing analysis to quantify deforestation rates for the Delta from 1978 to 2011, develop business-as-usual deforestation scenarios, and contextualize those results with an analysis of contemporary policy changes within Myanmar that are expected to alter the principal drivers of land-cover change. We show that mangrove systems of Myanmar are under greater threat than previously recognized, and that agriculture has been the principle driver of deforestation on the Delta. The centrality of agriculture to the Myanmar economy indicates that emerging policies are likely to tip the scales towards agricultural expansion, agro-industrial investment and potentially greater rates of deforestation due to the introduction of well-funded investors, insufficient land tenure agreements, and low governance effectiveness. The broad national challenge is to initiate environmental governance reforms (including safeguards) in the face of significant pressures for land grabbing and opportunistic resource extraction. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Park, Mi. "Trade liberalization and organized labour in the Asia-Pacific Region: Barriers to labour internationalism." Globalizations 11, no. 1 (2014): 71-81.

DOI: 10.1080/14747731.2014.860799


This article examines the impact of international power politics on trade liberalization and organized labour. Using regional and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) in the Asia-Pacific region as a case study, it discusses how China's economic rise and the ensuing interstate rivalry in the region have contributed to the proliferation of FTAs. In examining the politics of nation-states and organized labour in the Asia-Pacific with regard to FTAs, it identifies economic nationalism as a barrier to transnational labour solidarity. With a critical examination of alternative trade policies, this article explores alternative venues for global social justice and labour solidarity. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Frewer, Tim, and Sopheak Chan. "GIS and the ‘Usual Suspects’-[Mis] understanding Land Use Change in Cambodia." Human Ecology 42, no. 2 (2014): 267-281.

DOI: 10.1007/s10745-013-9639-z


GIS-RS techniques offer great potential for providing insights into the spatiality and temporality of the messy realties of deforestation. However, rather than positing that the land use maps produced using these novel technologies can cut through politics, it is argued that the map is merely an artifact of the broader process of land use planning which is constitutive of politics. This article critically reflects on a major land use mapping exercise that the two authors were involved with, in central Cambodia. It argues that GIS analysts need to go beyond merely a concern for 'the local', and have their own 'honest' teleologies that can navigate the complexities of environmental politics. This article shows how particular categorizations of land use that the analyst creates in accordance with their own desires and the technical limitations of GIS, are often bound up in techniques of government. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Gerber, Jonathan, Sarah Turner, and B. Lynne Milgram. "Food Provisioning and Wholesale Agricultural Commodity Chains in Northern Vietnam." Human Organization 73, no. 1 (2014): 50-61.


Recent research examining the functioning of agricultural wholesale markets in the Global South tends to aim at understanding how these connect co Mmodity chains between Global South suppliers and Global North consumers (often via large chain supermarkets), identifying groups of winners and losers en route. Often, the everyday lived experiences of individual actors along these chains, and how they maintain a livelihood within these vast networks, is o Mitted in favor of macro-level interpretations. Focusing on agricultural food provisioning in Hanoi, Vietnam's capital city, we analyze the co Mplex negotiations among numerous actors operating both local co Mmodity chains as well as regional South-South networks through the city's Cho Long Biěn wholesale market. These negotiations and trade relations rely on intricate networks, ties, and social capital. In present day socialist Vietnam, long-standing agricultural co Mmodity chain actors are not necessarily losing out to new players such as supermarkets as one Might expect, nor is their trade declining due to recent food safety concerns. Instead, these actors constantly renegotiate their positions along dynamic networks to maintain viable livelihoods.

Doyle, Nicholas. "The Asean Human Rights Declaration and the Implications of Recent Southeast Asian Initiatives in Human Rights Institution-Building and Standard-Setting." International & Comparative Law Quarterly 63, no. 1 (2014): 67-101.

DOI: 10.1017/S0020589313000390


Abstract On 18 November 2012 the 'Association of Southeast Asian Nations' (ASEAN) adopted the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration (AHRD). ASEAN has existed since 1967 and as a result allows Southeast Asia to be identified as a 'region' comparable with other regions such as Africa, the Americas and Europe which have been seen as such in human rights terms for over 40 years. However, until recently Southeast Asia has not been involved in a process of regional human rights institutionalization which in other regions has been an important means of implementing international human rights treaty commitments adopted by their member-States in global forums. Furthermore, the ten States of ASEAN as a group are parties to relatively few of the principal international human rights standard-setting and monitoring regimes. Hence vesting ASEAN with a human rights mandate would seem to present an opportunity to enhance the range of human rights commitments to which ASEAN States are subject. However, after reviewing the 'ASEAN human rights mechanism' it is concluded that much recent ASEAN activity amounts either to political rhetoric or has potential to fragment the human rights norms recognized by those ASEAN States which are committed to international human rights treaties. For the ASEAN States which are relatively uncommitted to international human rights treaty regimes, participating in the ASEAN mechanism may reduce pressure to recognize international norms. © 2013 British Institute of International and Comparative Law.

Isa, Salmi Mohd, and Lizana Ramli. "Factors influencing tourist visitation in marine tourism: lessons learned from FRI Aquarium Penang, Malaysia." International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 8, no. 1 (2014): 103-117.

DOI: 10.1108/IJCTHR-04-2013-0016


Purpose: To establish tourist visitation to new tourism areas is in most cases dependent on tourists' behavior. Indeed, tourist visitation is considered among the primary components of the marine tourism operation. Such behavior is usually enacted in the form of destination awareness, destination image and motivation. Word of mouth is likely to influence tourist to visit. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that may influence tourists to visit marine tourist destinations. Design/methodology/approach: The study has utilized self-administered questionnaire survey and the target population are the visitors that came to FRI Aquarium. The survey period was from August 2012 to September 2012. Total of 179 responses were collected during this period. Findings: This study demonstrates that destination awareness, motivation and WOM are factors that influence the tourist to visit the FRI Aquarium. Interestingly, destination image however, has shown insignificant relationship with tourist visitation. WOM also found to be has a full mediating effect for awareness towards tourist visitation. For example, before visit, visitor may require some information beforehand and word of mouth is a direct medium to transfer the information. A key implication for FRI Aquarium is that it might be wise to assess such variables for their marketing strategies. Research limitations/implications: First, the sample was obtained from one marine aquarium in Malaysia. The comparative studies between aquariums are important to understand if there are any similarities and differences. It would be better to conduct the survey in other local aquariums such as the Underwater World, Langkawi and the KL Aquaria, Kuala Lumpur. Second, a longitudinal study is relevant to further investigate the factors that will influence the visitor visitation. Thus, future study should gather data from those who had visited the aquarium several times. This approach might improve the destination image results, which in this study shows insignificant relationship. That said, acknowledgements of these limitations also suggest a new direction of future research. Practical implications: FRI Aquarium is suggested to create more awareness to the public by placing an advertisement via mainstream and social media. Hence, FRI Aquarium is suggested to design environmentally marine life oriented educational programs in order to motivate and encourage more visitors to visit the place. Originality/value: In sum, this paper conjectures that an understanding of factors that influence the tourist to visit the marine tourism destination are worthy of additional research. Consequently, the findings help to understand how these factors can provide alternative sources of marketing to attract the long-term economic sustainability of the FRI Aquarium in marine tourism. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Taguchi, Hiroyuki, and Suphannada Lowhachai. "A revisit to the incremental capital–output ratio: the case of Asian economies and Thailand." International Journal of Economic Policy in Emerging Economies 7, no. 1 (2014): 35-54.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEPEE.2014.059891


This paper aims to examine the trend in the incremental capital-output ratio (ICOR) and its relationship with per capita GDP and GDP growth rate by utilising the panel data of a number of Asian economies and the historical time-series data of Thailand. It might be significant to know the linkage between growth and investment through the ICOR level, since Asian economies have faced serious needs for heavy investments to attain a targeted growth. The panel-data analysis confirmed that the gross ICOR had a positive correlation with per capita GDP and a negative association with GDP growth rate as expected in a theoretical model. The time-series analysis verified that the net ICOR was positively correlated with per capita GDP. Both analyses showed that industrial shares did not affect the level of the gross and net ICORs. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Lim, Peng Han, and Mohd Salleh Aman. "The Origins and Development of Athletics Among the Military, European and Migrant Communities in Nineteenth-Century Singapore, 1819–1899." The International Journal of the History of Sport 31, no. 6 (2014): 652-673.

DOI: 10.1080/09523367.2013.869212


There is no detailed study about the origins of athletics in nineteenth-century Singapore. This research relied primarily on newspaper records, official census reports, club membership and school enrolment to study the origins and degree of participation in athletics in the military, European, Eurasian, Chinese, Malay and Indian communities. It also makes comparison to the diffusion and transmission of athletics within the global and the various local communities. The findings suggest that a foot-race was first introduced primarily to the Malay and Chinese community in the annual New Year regatta since 1837. Athletic events were held by the troops at Tanglin Barracks and Fort Canning in 1877 following the practice and tradition of the military colleges and camps in England. The athletic meets were also organised by the European, Eurasian, Straits Chinese, Malay and Tamil sports clubs starting in 1880 thereafter. It was introduced to three English boys' schools since 1887 after the establishment of the Education Department in 1872 and the organisation of Government and aided English schools. There were no physical education or athletic programme in the English girls' schools and in the elementary Malay, Chinese and Anglo-Tamil schools. © 2014 Taylor and Francis.

Schiff, Amira. "Reaching a Mutual Agreement: Readiness Theory and Coalition Building in the Aceh Peace Process." Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 7, no. 1 (2014): 57-82.

DOI: 10.1111/ncmr.12026


The study presents an analysis of the conflict resolution process in the Aceh conflict between the Government of Indonesia (GoI) and the Free Aceh Movement (Gerekan Aceh Merdeka or GAM). Starting with unofficial efforts by the Indonesian side from mid-2003, which eventually led the parties to the negotiation table and to the signing of the MoU in August 2005, the peace process put an end to the 30-year conflict over the independence of Aceh. The peaceful resolution of the Aceh conflict will be examined using readiness theory, which posits the factors that lead parties to negotiate, and the theory's hypotheses will be applied to understand the factors that contribute to success in negotiating a peace agreement. The study also examines the Aceh peace process from the perspective of central coalition theory, which relates to the readiness of the actors in the internal political debate to negotiate and reach an agreement.

Schiff, Amira. "On Success and Failure: Readiness Theory and the Aceh and Sri Lanka Peace Processes." International Negotiation 19, no. 1 (2014): 89-126.

DOI: 10.1163/15718069-12341271


This study presents a comparative analysis of two case studies in which attempts were made to resolve intractable ethno-national conflicts: the peace process undertaken in Aceh between the Government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement, which led to the signing of the Helsinki Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) ending the conflict in Aceh; and the process conducted in the Sri Lanka conflict from 2001 through 2004 between the Government of Sri Lanka and the Tamil Tigers, which failed to yield an agreement. The two peace processes will be examined using readiness theory, which focuses on the factors influencing the decision to enter into negotiations. This article also attempts to extend the hypotheses of readiness theory to explore the process of concession-making during the negotiations that took place in the two case studies. The findings indicate that the theory does contribute to understanding the dynamics of the pre-negotiation in both case studies and that applying its hypotheses may contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of the process of reaching an agreement in the Aceh process and of the factors leading to the failure of the negotiations in the Sri Lanka conflict. The analysis also gives rise to some questions that challenge readiness theory and its hypotheses-empirically and methodologically. © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Prommin, Panu, Seksak Jumreornvong, and Pornsit Jiraporn. "The Effect of Corporate Governance on Stock Liquidity: The Case of Thailand." International Review of Economics & Finance 32 (2014): 132-42.

DOI: 10.1016/j.iref.2014.01.011


Grounded in agency theory, this study explores the effect of corporate governance on equity liquidity in Thailand. Theory suggests that effective governance enhances financial and operational transparency, which in turn, reduces adverse selection. Facing less adverse selection problems, traders provide more liquidity to stocks of well-governed firms. Based on a sample of largest firms in Thailand from 2006 to 2009, our results show a significant relationship between governance and liquidity within firms over time. In particular, within firms, when governance quality increases, liquidity significantly improves. For instance, a rise in governance quality by one standard deviation improves the liquidity ratio by 26.19%. We also show that our results are unlikely confounded by endogeneity. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Fauzi Abdul Hamid, Ahmad, and Muhamad Takiyuddin Ismail. "Islamist Conservatism and the Demise of Islam Hadhari in Malaysia." Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 25, no. 2 (2014): 159-180.

DOI: 10.1080/09596410.2014.880549


This article argues that Islam Hadhari, as a model for development officially inaugurated during the administration of Malaysia's fifth Prime Minister, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (2003-9), encountered failure. Its lack of success was significantly due to the rise of Islamist conservatives, who deliberately interpreted Islam Hadhari as a political instrument to impose Islamization from above in a manner not conducive to living in a spirit of peaceful coexistence in a multi-ethnic society. While on the one hand it promoted an Islam that cherishes the values of inclusivity, moderation and inter-religious tolerance, on the other hand Islam Hadhari unfortunately triggered defensive responses from Islamist conservatives. This ad hoc conservative alliance comprised religious leaders associated with the United Malays National Organization (UMNO), state religious functionaries, scholars affiliated to the opposition Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS: Parti Islam SeMalaysia) and Islamist non-governmental organizations. The rise of this Islamist conservatism aggravated ethno-religious relations during Abdullah Ahmad Badawi's premiership, leading to the setbacks experienced by his government in the general elections of 2008. By then, the death knell had been sounded for Islam Hadhari. It was steadily consigned to the graveyard of history by the administration of Najib Razak, who took over from Abdullah in April 2009. © 2014 © 2014 University of Birmingham.

Cheong, Calvin WH, and Jothee Sinnakkannu. "Ethnic Diversity and Firm Financial Performance: Evidence From Malaysia." Journal of Asia-Pacific Business 15, no. 1 (2014): 73-100.

DOI: 10.1080/10599231.2014.872973


The authors investigate the relationship between board ethnic diversity, ethnicity and market, and book measures of firm financial performance using Malaysian data. This represents a departure from prior studies that focused on White countries whose people remain culturally indistinct. Ethnic diversity is measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index; ethnicity is the largest representation of a single race. Controlling for firm- and board-specific attributes, the authors find a significant positive relationship between ethnic diversity and firm financial performance and that financial performance of companies differ between ethnicities. The results suggest that despite modernization and homogenization, corporate Malaysia is still divided along racial lines. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Painter, Martin. "Governance Reforms in China and Vietnam: Marketisation, Leapfrogging and Retro-Fitting." Journal of Contemporary Asia 44, no. 2: 204-20.

DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2013.870829


International good governance orthodoxy proposes a set of step-by-step governance reforms as a necessary component of development. However, this orthodox view is more a reflection of persistent myths of development than of its realities. Living examples of this are found in contemporary China and Vietnam. In these two authoritarian one-party states, much international orthodoxy of good governance reform and practice is deliberately contradicted in the reform and opening-up process. In uncovering the underlying political logic of persistent "lag" in governance reforms in Vietnam and China, we observe examples of leapfrogging and retro-fitting, rather than orderly sequencing of governance reforms. The case of rapid marketisation of public service delivery is used to illustrate the arguments. The lesson is clear: good governance can come later. © 2014 Journal of Contemporary Asia.

Dressel, Björn. "Governance, Courts and Politics in Asia." Journal of Contemporary Asia 44, no. 2: 259-78.

DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2013.870827


It is widely argued that an empowered judiciary supports better governance by strengthening the rule of law and helping to make government more accountable and stable, but how solidly that reasoning is based in fact has not been carefully analysed. As recent events in Asia illustrate, apparently similar constitutional choices about courts can have very different effects on political life and ultimately governance. To address the relative lack of empirical observation and more closely investigate the nexus between courts and governance, this article first presents a basic typology of judicial politics and then applies it to Thailand, Singapore, Korea and Japan. The intent is to: (1) provide a much-needed and more nuanced view of the unfolding judicialisation phenomenon; and (2) urge closer attention to how specific patterns of judicial behaviour in Asia relate to dimensions of governance. The study thus offers an opportunity to illuminate larger issues at the intersection of judicial engagement and political governance and to advance a theoretical understanding of both. © 2014 © 2014 Journal of Contemporary Asia.

Lall, Marie, and Ashley South. "Comparing Models of Non-State Ethnic Education in Myanmar: The Mon and Karen National Education Regimes." Journal of Contemporary Asia 44, no. 2: 298-321.

DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2013.823534


This article explores two models of non-state education provision in Myanmar (Burma), in order to draw conclusions regarding templates for ethnic education regimes in this fast-changing country. Ethnic Armed Groups in Myanmar have developed education systems in the context of long-running armed conflicts. This paper examines two such regimes. Karen communities struggle with few resources to educate their children. Despite great difficulties, the Karen National Union has developed a curriculum based upon one Karen dialect, which is employed in about 1,000 schools. Graduates of this education regime are mostly unable to speak fluent Burmese, or to integrate with the Myanmar tertiary education system; they are orientated towards a Karen national identity, rather than Myanmar citizenship. However, with the beginnings of a substantial peace process, Karen educators will need to re-think their implicitly separatist agenda. A comparative case study is offered by the Mon ethnic minority. The New Mon State Party has had a fragile ceasefire since 1995. Some 270 Mon National Schools provide Mon language instruction at elementary levels, shifting to Burmese at middle school. As the Mon Schools follow the government curriculum, with extra classes in Mon language and history-culture, graduates are able to matriculate and enter the nationwide tertiary education system. We argue that the Mon experience can be a useful model for education reform in a transitional Myanmar, as political and civil society leaders negotiate a more decentralised state. © 2013 Journal of Contemporary Asia.

Singh, Sarinda. "Developing Bureaucracies for Environmental Governance: State Authority and World Bank Conditionality in Laos." Journal of Contemporary Asia 44, no. 2: 322-41.

DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2013.823587


This paper considers the on-going production of bureaucracies for environmental governance in developing countries and the ways in which donor engagement is reshaped through localised bureaucratic dynamics. In Laos, World Bank conditions associated with the Nam Theun 2 hydropower project saw the establishment of the Watershed Management and Protection Authority (WMPA). I examine internal dynamics at the WMPA headquarters in Nakai District, including formal institutions for forest management, informal institutions for recognising local authority and wealth redistribution and the personal aspirations of WMPA officials. In doing so, this piece contributes to current discussions about donor-driven institutional change, practices of state-making and the local "technocrats" who are personally confronted by the complex intersections of donor conditionality and state authority. © 2013 Journal of Contemporary Asia.

Fang, Jeff, Roslyn Russell, and Supriya Singh. "Exploring the impact of mobile money services on marketing interactions in relation to consumer well-being in subsistence marketplaces–lessons from rural Cambodia." Journal of Marketing Management 30, no. 5-6 (2014): 445-475.

DOI: 10.1080/0267257X.2014.884619


The mobile phone has increasingly become a channel for providing access to formal financial services. There is a need to understand how financial service offerings, increasingly accessed through mobile phones, impact marketing interactions, specifically marketing exchange activities and social network relationships, to enhance consumer well-being (CWB) in subsistence marketplaces. Through interviews and contextualised observational research in rural Cambodia, findings reveal that the impacts of mobile money services on marketing interactions in relation to CWB can be categorised at two distinct levels. The first-level impact is the actual physical money transfer transactions as part of the marketing exchange activities which leads to the second-level impact on the social network relationships at interpersonal, social group and cultural levels. Drawing from these insights, policy-makers and industry stakeholders can formulate strategies and develop innovative service offerings through mobile phone technology to enhance CWB in subsistence marketplaces. © 2014 © 2014 Westburn Publishers Ltd.

MA, Nur Saadah, Siti Hajar AB, and M. Rezaul Islam. "Coping Strategies Among Mothers of Chronically Ill Children: A Case Study in Malaysia." Journal of Social Service Research 40, no. 2 (2014): 160-177.

DOI: 10.1080/01488376.2013.866613


The purpose of this study is to identify the stresses and coping strategies of five mothers in caring for their chronically ill and disabled children. These mothers were receiving services from a nonprofit hospital in Malaysia. Through an in-depth case study design, the findings indicated that emotional stress caused high levels of depression, which decreased life satisfaction that led to poorer physical health. Issues explored included employment, noncooperation of family members, as well as factors related to the mother's individual abilities and how these factors might affect maternal caregiving. Recommendations for future research include identifying probable psychosocial stresses and other associated factors while emphasizing the importance of community-based programs that minimize these stresses. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Phyak, Prem, and Thuy Thi Ngoc Bui. "Youth engaging language policy and planning: ideologies and transformations from within." Language Policy 13, no. 2 (2014): 101-119.

DOI: 10.1007/s10993-013-9303-x


This paper explores language policy and planning from the perspectives of global ideologies, national agendas, and local transformation in two Asian countries, Vietnam and Nepal. Through engaged ethnography, we not only unravel complex ideological contestations of neoliberal and nationalistic agendas, but also portray language policy resistance and transformation through the voice of indigenous/minority youth. Drawing on two different historical and socio-political contexts, we first describe how language policies are guided by neoliberal ideologies and nationalistic agendas that increasingly misrecognize linguistic and cultural diversity in both countries. We then draw on engaged ethnographies to reveal how Nepalese and Vietnamese indigenous/minority youth interpret, resist, negotiate, and transform policies that fail to embrace their language and sociocultural identities. Together we argue for engaged language policy and planning in which indigenous/minority youth are critically involved in interpreting, re-envisioning, and transforming language policy on-the-ground. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Muallil, Richard N., Samuel S. Mamauag, Jeffrey T. Cababaro, Hazel O. Arceo, and Porfirio M. Aliño. "Catch trends in Philippine small-scale fisheries over the last five decades: The fishers׳ perspectives." Marine Policy 47 (2014): 110-117.

DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2014.02.008


Understanding catch trends through time is a crucial management consideration that would ensure long term sustainability of the fisheries. This study describes some changes in small-scale fisheries in the Philippines over the past five decades using both "quantitative" and "qualitative" estimates of current and past daily catches. "Quantitative" estimate was determined as the difference between current and past catches in kg per trip, as reported by fishers, on a normal fishing day. "Qualitative" estimate, on the other hand, was determined by asking fishers whether current catches are (i) less than half, (ii) lower to 50%, or (iii) the same or higher than past levels. "Quantitative estimate" indicated that current catches are lower by 16±14% of the 2000-2010 levels and 24±13-26±19% of catch levels in the preceding four decades. Catch decline over the past five decades was much worse based on "qualitative" estimate. The relatively more stable catches from "quantitative" estimate could be attributed to the improvement in fishing strategies employed by fishers to keep catches high even as the fish stocks continue to decline. The results of the study further suggest that the condition of small-scale fisheries in the Philippines has been deteriorating since the 1970s but initial signs of severe depletion of fish stocks to the level indicative of biological and economic overfishing occurred in 1990s. Increasing fishing population was attributed as the main cause of fishery decline. Other factors include destructive fishing, large-scale fishing in coastal waters, climate change, siltation/pollution from land-based activities and even marine protected areas establishment and tourism activities that closed some traditional fishing grounds. Important insights and policy prescriptions for improved management of small-scale fisheries are further discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Mujani, Wan Kamal, Anwar Muttaqin, and Kartini Aboo Talib Khalid. "The Involvement of Malay Students in Campus Politics in Malaysian Public Institutions of Higher Education." Middle - East Journal of Scientific Research 20, no. 12 (2014): 2147-53.

DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.20.12.21112


The purpose of this article is to highlight the history of Malaystudent involvement in campus politics of public institutions of higher education beginning from the 1960s known as 'the golden age of students' and their involvement after the Universities and University Colleges Act (UUCA)was introduced in the year 1971 as well as student involvement inthis new millineum. The research methodology adopted in this article isqualitative, namely through a literature review of books, theses, journals, newspapers and local magazines related to the topic. The researchers find that there are significant differences between former students and present students, especially on issues raised and championed. Indeed, student involvement in campus politics has continued since the beginning to the present time despite UUCA 1971 being in force. This Act has also undergone changes because of current developments in campus politics in this country. © IDOSI Publications, 2014.

Mujani, Wan Kamal, Anwar Muttaqin, and Kartini AbooTalib Khalid. "Historical Development of Public Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia." Middle - East Journal of Scientific Research 20, no. 12 (2014): 2154-2157.

DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.20.12.21113


In Malaysia, institutions of higher learning are divided into public and private. Public higher institutions of learning (IPTA) such as teacher training college, technical college, agricultural college, polytechnic, language institute and 20 other universities are listed by the Ministry of Higher Education. All IPTAsare mostly funded by government financial provisions through the Ministry of Higher Education whereas private institutions of higher learning (IPTS) are more like businesses with profits, withmuch less government funding than forIPTAs. This article discusses the early development of institutions of higher learning through the Universities and Colleges Act from the year 1960 to the year 2012 and their contribution to the community, society and nation. The outcome of this article is based on a qualitative method by analysis of library literature. Reference is also made to related websites such as the official portal site of the Ministry of Higher Education. © IDOSI Publications, 2014.

Norman, David J. "From shouting to counting: civil society and good governance reform in Cambodia." The Pacific Review 27, no. 2 (2014): 241-264.

DOI: 10.1080/09512748.2014.882393


This article explores the emergence of new spaces for civil society organisations (CSOs) as a result of an increasing interest by international donors in multi-stakeholder approaches to good governance under the 'new policy agenda'. Drawing upon a contemporary case study of civil society in Cambodia, it argues that CSOs have been encouraged to perform two key roles on a national level: professional service delivery agents and democratic watchdogs. Both roles are seen by donors as integral to supporting an accountable and professional model of the Cambodian state while drawing upon valuable private sector lessons in a synergetic model of governance. The result is the construction of particular neoliberal spaces for CSOs operating as technical implementation mechanisms in response to externally driven donor pressures. Furthermore, under this new framework of governance, CSOs face pressure to undergo internal transformation akin to new public management reform; embracing economistic and administrative modes of coordination as core values of civil society participation. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Gerard, Kelly. "ASEAN and civil society activities in ‘created spaces’: the limits of liberty." The Pacific Review 27, no. 2 (2014): 265-287.

DOI: 10.1080/09512748.2014.882395


The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has recently made numerous commitments to engage civil society organizations (CSOs) in its governance practices. However, the opportunities created offer limited means for CSOs to contest policy as a result of strict controls over who can participate and the forms of participation permitted. Activists have consequently pursued their agendas outside of spaces sanctioned by ASEAN through 'created spaces,' such as conferences organized parallel to official summits. However, this form of political participation has limited potential to influence official processes because despite its independence, these activities are still structured in relation to ASEAN practices. The ineffectual nature of CSO advocacy despite ASEAN's people-orientated shift has been documented, however explanations for this trend remain limited. This article applies the modes of political participation framework that acknowledges the role of intergovernmental organizations in structuring spaces for civil society participation and, in doing so, shaping the contribution that CSOs can make. Through an examination of the regulations and practices that govern CSO participation in both ASEAN-sanctioned and independent spaces, it argues that spaces for CSO participation are structured to prevent CSOs from contesting policy, suggesting that ASEAN's shift to widen participation is directed towards legitimating its reform agenda. Hence, ASEAN's claim of becoming 'people oriented' must be considered in recognition of the limiting effect its engagement practices have on CSOs' ability to advance alternative agendas. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Nguyen, Thuy-Phuong. "The rivalry of the French and American educational missions during the Vietnam War." Paedagogica Historica 50, no. 1-2 (2014): 27-41.

DOI: 10.1080/00309230.2013.872683


From 1955 to 1975, the French and the Americans were both active in the educational field in South Vietnam, but their objectives were different. The French were concerned with preserving their influence with the Vietnamese elites and relied on the Mission Culturelle - the heir of the colonial Direction of Education - and its prestigious high schools. The Americans wanted to improve the level of education of the population and strived to reform the Vietnamese administration in order to make South Vietnam a nation strong enough to bar the advance of communism. The main operator was USAID, which coordinated and funded the activities of expert teams, and particularly of academic missions. The French deeply resented the American intrusion into what they believed to be their historical area of cultural influence, and they perceived the United States as aggressive towards them. The Americans did not oppose the French cultural presence but they did try to eliminate those parts of the French legacy - particularly the teaching methods and the administrative structures - that they considered to be obsolete and an obstacle to their reforms. The battle between those two cultural traditions was waged by their Vietnamese supporters, with long-time Francophiles on one side and US-trained educators and administrators on the other. However, this competition was partly artificial, as the French and Americans actually needed each other. Their educational missions also had to deal with the circumstances of the war in Vietnam. In the early 1970s, the French resigned themselves to the dismantling of their educational network while American reform met with substantial resistance in South Vietnamese society, which resented the Americanisation of an educational system that mixed the Confucian and the French academic traditions, as symbolised by the enduring popularity of the Baccalaureate examination that still exists today in Vietnam. © 2014 © 2014 Stichting Paedagogica Historica.

Neidel, J. David. "Discourse of Decline: Local Perspectives on Magic in Highland Jambi, Indonesia." Social Analysis 58, no. 1 (2014): 67-87.

DOI: 10.3167/sa.2014.580104


Scholarly studies of magic, sorcery, and witchcraft have differed in their conclusions about the empirical efficacy of such practices and the persistence of related concepts. Often marginalized in these accounts, however, are local commentaries that address those same issues. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research in the highland Jambi region of central Sumatra, this article examines magical practices found in the region, the modes through which they are acquired, and connections to a set of ethereal beings that lie at the source of those supernatural abilities. While the belief in and practice of magical powers remain widespread, there exists a general 'discourse of decline'. This article analyzes several elements of that discourse, particularly declining potency, practice, relevance, and believability, showing where local perspectives converge and diverge with those that underlie alternative scholarly frameworks. © Berghahn Journals.

Cheng, Yi'En. "Time protagonists: student migrants, practices of time and cultural construction of the Singapore-educated person." Social & Cultural Geography 15, no. 4 (2014): 385-405.

DOI: 10.1080/14649365.2014.883424


This paper analyses the cultural production of the 'educated person' through student migrants' engagement with ideas and practices of time. In particular, it pays attention to how these young people negotiate identities and develop unique strategies to achieve personal goals of education. Drawing on the works of Pierre Bourdieu and Michael Flaherty, I conceptualise time as both a discursive structure and cultural resource to forward two interrelated arguments. First, I argue that time is an important discourse in the ways that ideas about education and becoming educated are imagined, performed and negotiated. Second, I suggest more attention needs to be placed on time as a central facet of cultural (re)production. This study focuses on one particular student flow from Southeast Asia to Singapore as a case to illuminate the role of time in cultural production, based on research with thirty students conducted between 2010 and 2011 primarily through biographical interviews. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Maher, Kristen Hill, and Megan Lafferty. "White migrant masculinities in Thailand and the paradoxes of Western privilege." Social & Cultural Geography 15, no. 4 (2014): 427-448.

DOI: 10.1080/14649365.2014.893703


This study examines the counter-paradigmatic migration of Westerners into Thailand, focusing on men in transnational intimate relationships in the northeastern region. We explore how the particular spaces in which they settled affected these migrants' capacities to perform what they saw as hegemonic masculinities over time. We find that they initially experienced an increase in status that they were able to convert into assets in romantic relationships, permitting them to position themselves as 'providers' and 'real white men,' drawing on masculine ideals from their home countries as well as a diffuse neocolonial imaginary. In the long run, however, these identity constructions were subject to internal contradictions and attrition. They were also place-bound, creating both financial and social obstacles to a return home, particularly for those without ties to transnational capital. The ways these patterns differ from those in existing scholarship underline how both the particular spaces of migrant settlement and temporal dimensions are critical for the analysis of migrant masculinities. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Ataollahi Eshkoor, Sima, TengkuAizan Hamid, SitiSa’adiahHassan Nudin, and ChanYoke Mun. "The Effects of Social Support, Substance Abuse and Health Care Supports on Life Satisfaction in Dementia." [In English]. Social Indicators Research 116, no. 2 (2014): 535-44.

DOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0304-0


This study aimed to determine predictability of life satisfaction by focusing on social support, substance abuse, socio-demographic factors as well as received health services from medical and traditional centers in the elderly with dementia. The subjects were 1,210 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly with cognitive problems. In addition, age, ethnicity, sex differences, marital status, educational level, social support, substance abuse and receiving health services were evaluated to predict the risk of falls in samples. Social support was measured by Lubben score. Substance abuse was referred to smoking per day, addiction to alcohol consumption as well as dependency to medications. Health care supports, which were received by individuals included medical and traditional treatments. Life satisfaction was measured by asking in general 'Are you satisfied with your current life'. The multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the effects of contributing variables on life satisfaction in respondents. Approximately 83 % of subjects reported that they were satisfied with their current life. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that marital status (OR = 1.98), traditional treatments (OR = 0.43), social support (OR = 2.28) and educational level (OR = 1.79) significantly affected life satisfaction in samples (p < 0.05). Furthermore, age, ethnicity, sex differences, substance abuse and medical treatments were not significant predictors of life satisfaction (p > 0.05). It was concluded that social support, being married and education increased life satisfaction in subjects but traditional treatments decreased life satisfaction. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Hai, LeTrinh, PhamHoang Hai, PhamThiThu Ha, NguyenManh Ha, LyTrong Dai, PhamViet Hoa, NguyenCao Huan, and LaiVinh Cam. "A System of Sustainability Indicators for the Province of Thai Binh, Vietnam." [In English]. Social Indicators Research 116, no. 3 (2014): 661-79.

DOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0315-x


Sustainable Development is a broad and universal concept. Indicators are a basis to measure sustainability and to direct policies that aim to achieve a better quality of life. Thai Binh, a coastal province in North Vietnam is strongly concerned about strategic sustainability development. To select a system of sustainability indicators, the Delphi method was applied in 2012. A two-round questionnaire was organized to use with 32 experts, who acted as participants. 69 indicators were selected from 98 listed indicators: 15 related to economic development, 5 to the sea and coastal zone, 1 to the global economic partnership, 4 to consumption and production patterns, 7 to poverty, 3 to governance, 9 to health, 4 to education, 3 to demographics, 2 to natural hazards, 5 to atmosphere, 7 to land, and 3 to freshwater. Conversely, 29 other indicators were rejected. The Delphi method allows indicator selection for identification of the process of sustainability. The system of indicators, as the first important step of the sustainable development process, provides useful information for decision makers and planners as well sustainability strategy. It is planned that the indicators selected should be applied in the province. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Tan, Teck-Hong. "Satisfaction and Motivation of Homeowners Towards Green Homes." [In English]. Social Indicators Research 116, no. 3 (2014): 869-85.

DOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0310-2


Whilst green homes have been constructed by housing developers in Malaysia, developers should determine how satisfied homeowners are with their green homes. This paper first reviews data from a survey to determine the satisfaction level of homeowners towards their residence in terms of green features in Iskandar Malaysia. Next, factor analysis is carried out to identify benefits that motivate households to own green homes, and then followed by logistic regression analysis to determine the effects of motivators on housing satisfaction. Results show that homeowners are most satisfied with the green features of high ceiling, North-South orientation, double-glazed panel glass doors and windows, solar panel system and landscaped parks with facilities. Rain water harvesting system and low-flow water fixtures, on the other hand, are the least satisfied green features among homeowners. Four motivators are found that describe households' belief about green homes: 'Financial Incentives', 'Healthy and Sustainable Environment', 'Energy Efficiency' and 'Livability'. The findings also demonstrated that the extent of housing satisfaction may depend on what motivates homeowners to own green homes. It would seem that house buyers do not just demand a typical house to stay in but also sustainable houses that do not compromise the environment. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Tampubolon, Gindo, and Wulung Hanandita. "Poverty and Mental Health in Indonesia." Social Science & Medicine 106 (2014): 20-27.

DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.01.012


Community and facility studies in developing countries have generally demonstrated an inverse relationship between poverty and mental health. However, recent population-based studies contradict this. In India and Indonesia the poor and non-poor show no difference in mental health. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using a validated measure of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and a new national sample from Indonesia - a country where widespread poverty and deep inequality meet with a neglected mental health service sector. Results from three-level overdispersed Poisson models show that a 1% decrease in per capita household expenditure was associated with a 0.05% increase in CES-D score (depressive symptoms), while using a different indicator (living on less than $2 a day) it was estimated that the poor had a 5% higher CES-D score than the better off. Individual social capital and religiosity were found to be positively associated with mental health while adverse events were negatively associated. These findings provide support for the established view regarding the deleterious association between poverty and mental health in developed and developing countries. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Prescott, Megan, and Mark Nichter. "Transnational Nurse Migration: Future Directions for Medical Anthropological Research." Social Science & Medicine 107 (2014): 113-23.

DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.02.026


Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Grundy, John, Peter Annear, Shakil Ahmed, and Beverley-Ann Biggs. "Adapting to Social and Political Transitions – the Influence of History on Health Policy Formation in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma)." Social Science & Medicine 107, no. 0 (2014): 179-88.

DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.01.015


The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma) has a long and complex history characterized by internal conflict and tense international relations. Post-independence, the health sector has gradually evolved, but with health service development and indicators lagging well behind regional expectations. In recent years, the country has initiated political reforms and a reorientation of development policy towards social sector investment. In this study, from a systems and historical perspective, we used publicly available data sources and grey literature to describe and analyze links between health policy and history from the post-independence period up until 2012. Three major periods are discernable in post war health system development and political history in Myanmar. The first post-independence period was associated with the development of the primary health care system extending up to the 1988 political events. The second period is from 1988 to 2005, when the country launched a free market economic model and was arguably experiencing its highest levels of international isolation as well as very low levels of national health investment. The third period (2005-2012) represents the first attempts at health reform and recovery, linked to emerging trends in national political reform and international politics. Based on the most recent period of macro-political reform, the central state is set to transition from a direct implementer of a command and control management system, towards stewardship of a significantly more complex and decentralized administrative order. Historical analysis demonstrates the extent to which these periodic shifts in the macro-political and economic order acts to reset the parameters for health policy making. This case demonstrates important lessons for other countries in transition by highlighting the extent to which analysis of political history can be instructive for determination of more feasible boundaries for future health policy action. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Poon, Wai Ching, and Yong Shen Lee. "Inflation Targeting in Asean-10." South African Journal of Economics 82, no. 1 (2014): 141-57.

DOI: 10.1111/saje.12028


The paper addresses the empirical question of whether economies that do not systematically target inflation (non-inflation targeters) experience higher exchange rate volatility as compared with inflation targeters in 10 countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) from 1990 to 2010. The paper examines the role of real exchange rate, exchange rate volatility and the reaction functions of central banks using dynamic panel estimation techniques. The results indicate that the output gap offers more useful information than the inflation gap in setting interest rates for inflation targeters, implying that the real term is more important than the nominal term. In turn, this suggests that an increase in interest rate can be wielded swiftly to reduce real gross domestic product and suppress inflation. The real exchange rate appears as a weaker determinant in setting interest rates for non-inflation targeters. Inflation targeters experienced lower exchange rate volatility compared with non-targeters in the ASEAN, which implies that implementation costs to their domestic economies may be marginally lower. Meanwhile, the non-targeters follow a mixed strategy as both the inflation and real exchange rate are used as instruments to set the interest rates. © 2013 Economic Society of South Africa.

Lim, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Seul-Ye; Yoo, Seung-Hoon. 2014. "Oil Consumption, CO2 Emission, and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Philippines." Sustainability 6, no. 2: 967-979.

DOI: 10.3390/su6020967


This paper attempts to investigate the short- and long-run causality issues among oil consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in the Philippines by using time series techniques and annual data for the period 1965-2012. Tests for unit root, co-integration, and Granger-causality tests based on an error-correction model are presented. Three important findings emerge from the investigation. First, there is bi-directional causality between oil consumption and economic growth, which suggests that the Philippines should endeavor to overcome the constraints on oil consumption to achieve economic growth. Second, bi-directional causality between oil consumption and CO2 emissions is found, which implies that the Philippines needs to improve efficiency in oil consumption in order not to increase CO2 emissions. Third, uni-directional causality running from CO2 emissions to economic growth is detected, which means that growth can continue without increasing CO2 emissions.

Khanal, Bhoj Raj, Christopher Gan, and Susanne Becken. "Tourism Inter-Industry Linkages in the Lao Pdr Economy: An Input-Output Analysis." Tourism Economics 20, no. 1 (2014): 171-94.

DOI: 10.5367/te.2013.0255


This paper studies the significance of economic linkages between the Lao PDR tourism sector and the rest of the economy. An international visitors' expenditure survey and input-output models were used to disaggregate tourism economic data from the economy. A series of approaches was then employed to construct inter-industry linkage measures. The results reveal a rising trend in tourism's linkages with the country's economy from 2003 to 2008, indicating an increase in the tourism sector's dependency on the rest of the economy. The key sectors are food and beverages, manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, agriculture and livestock, and tourism - these sectors dominated the economy during 2003-2008. The results provide evidence that the Lao PDR tourism sector is a key sector in enhancing economic growth and enabling the country to be one of the fastest growing economies in the Greater Mekong Subregion. ©2014 Publishing Technology.

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