Jun 2, 2014

Academic articles published in the 3rd and 4th Week of May (17th~31st may)

Here is the list of academic articles recorded from Database during the 3rd and 4th Week of May (17th~31st may):

Aung-Thwin, Michael. 2014. "Reply to F. K. Lehman (F. K. L. Chit Hlaing)." Journal of Burma Studies 18 (1):187-92.



This kind of debate is not new to Kris Lehman and me; we have been at it for several decades, and I think, most of it, to both our benefit. But we have kept it to ourselves much of the time until now.
In the current response to my article, Lehman focuses on one central theme: that the Myanmar Sangha was (and is) not a “unitary organization” and “not at all a unified body.” Although the nature of the Myanmar Sangha was not the topic of my article — only six out of 89 pages problematized the Sangha question while the rest dealt with the history of Sangha-State relations since the Pagan period — nonetheless, the issue is important to Myanmar Studies and needs more thorough discussion, especially problems of analysis, evidence, and interpretation.

Cho, Violet. 2014. "The Academic Life of Savages." Journal of Burma Studies 18 (1):23-31.



Hta is an originary S’gaw Karen literary form and is a fundamental part of “Karen” culture. According to the nineteenthcentury Thesaurus of Karen Knowledge, a colonial project to render oral knowledge to text, hta refers to conventionalized speech and song for multiple purposes. These include encouragement, fantasy, criticism, dialogue, argument, humor, praise and the discussion of taboo topics. According to Wade’s definition, speech becomes hta when it follows rhyming conventions. Roland Mischung, who did research on S’gaw Karen in northern Thailand in the early 1980s, wrote that villagers saw the knowledge and use of hta as marking...

Décobert, Anne. 2014. "Sitting on the Fence?: Politics and Ethics of Research into Cross-Border Aid on the Thailand-Myanmar/Burma Border." Journal of Burma Studies 18 (1):33-58.



The politics of humanitarian aid are complex and often sensitive, central to a multi-billion dollar global aid industry — or so I argued in a presentation before beginning fieldwork on the Thailand-Myanmar/Burma border. Yet before working with a humanitarian organization in Mae Sot, on the Thai side of the border, I did not grasp the extent to which the debate around cross-border aid was politicized and at times emotional. Nor did I appreciate the impact that these issues would have on my fieldwork, as a researcher who was told early on by one of the organization’s leaders that I could not “sit on the fence.”

Egreteau, Renaud. 2014. "The Idealization of a Lost Paradise: Narratives of Nostalgia and Traumatic Return Migration among Indian Repatriates from Burma since the 1960s." Journal of Burma Studies 18 (1):137-80.



American writer Mira Kamdar captured in her literary work a critical moment of Burma’s postcolonial history: the forced migration of Indian communities out of the country during the 1960s. Mrs. Kamdar’s paternal grandparents hailed from Gujarat, in western India. They had migrated to Akyab (now Sittwe) in Arakan State in the 1920s, and their business then prospered in Rangoon. But they hastily returned to Bombay in the midst of the growing Burmese militaristic nationalism of the 1960s. Familiar to any student of Burmese contemporary affairs, the repatriation of Indian populations from military-ruled Burma back to India has, however, seldom been researched by academia.

Lehman, F. K. 2014. "On Michael Aung-Thwin’s “Those Men in Saffron Robes”." Journal of Burma Studies 18 (1):181-6.



The word saṁgha is literally a “going together,” thus something like “association.” It is commonly rendered into English in Pali and Sanskrit dictionaries, as “community,” but as for the Sangha (technically, translating from the Pali, “the Sangha of the Four Quarters”), it is only, as it were, a community of communities. In fact, each monastery is itself a sangha and the same for each “order” (“sect”). And in the latter case, an “order” (ordination group or tradition), either a nikaya (lit. “separated body”) or a gaṇa (Burmese gaing), and only this latter word means “community” in the literal sense of a commensal grouping. So, as said above, the Sangha (Aung-Thwin’s official or mainstream Sangha) is just a community of communities and not at all a unified body. This does not mean that it is incorrect to talk of the Sangha in the country (Burma/Myanmar) as an entity; it may imply, though, that it is an institution rather than a unitary organization. As such, its various parts can indeed be organized under an umbrella organization, say, under the primate as in royal times. This means that, after all, Aung-Thwin is not at all incorrect in describing it as the Sangha, in as much as the umbrella organization in effect defines the mainstream, in Aung-Thwin’s sense, since his “fringe” groups of monks essentially act in disregard of the mainstream’s rules and its interpretation of Buddhist Canon Law (vinaya).

Lertchavalitsakul, Busarin. 2014. "“Who Do You Know Over There?”: Fieldwork Experiences in Restricted Southern Shan State, Burma." Journal of Burma Studies 18 (1):83-95.



The uncertain political situation in Burma has had an immense impact on how I have carried out my recent research into the lives of the Shan people there, and especially on the ethical choices I have had to make when attempting to visit restricted zones in southern Shan State. In October 2012, two years after the new government was formed, I traveled to Burma in order to collect data concerning migration and commodity flows undertaken by the Shan people. In the early phase of my fieldwork, I had difficulty accessing my research sites, until I decided to take a few risks. One lesson I learned from these activities: it is often knowing someone with economic or political power in a research area that makes it possible and indeed legal to conduct research that would otherwise be impossible. Of course, Burma is similar to other societies in this regard, but knowing powerful people is especially important in Burma because, despite the nominal transition that is taking place from military to democratic rule, a number of state and non-state actors control the territories that researchers may wish to access, and as a result, extra-legal exchanges are still commonplace.

Lisa, Brooten, and Metro Rosalie. 2014. "Thinking about Ethics in Burma Research." Journal of Burma Studies 18 (1):1-22.



Burma’s colonial past, its years under military dictatorship, its ongoing ethnic and religious conflicts, and the current shifts in the political landscape all present unique challenges for researchers seeking to behave ethically with their informants, their institutions, each other, and the public sphere. The recent upsurge of interest in Burma presents an opportunity for scholars who study the country to reflect on the ethical dilemmas they have confronted and to articulate how they have addressed them. It is our hope that this effort can help those who specialize in Burma to consider the norms and divergences that exist within our inter-disciplinary scholarly community, and can aid those new to Burma Studies in navigating their research in a more informed manner. In light of the need for such a conversation, The Journal of Burma Studies agreed to publish this special issue.

Matelski, Maaike. 2014. "On Sensitivity and Secrecy: How Foreign Researchers and their Local Contacts in Myanmar Deal with Risk under Authoritarian Rule." Journal of Burma Studies 18 (1):59-82.



Toward the end of my first year as a PhD student, I participated in a graduate conference on research ethics and dilemmas that anthropologists encounter in the field. My intended field research, covering aspects of human rights, democratization, and social activism in Myanmar, had yet to take place. There was limited published academic guidance on how to conduct such research, and the few available ethnographic studies on politics and human rights in Myanmar came under such gloomy titles as “living silence” (Fink 2009) and “the politics of fear” (Skidmore 2004). I decided to use the conference as an opportunity to present some of the difficulties I thought I might experience in the field. While most of the topics raised during the conference led to interesting debates on how ethical dilemmas had been or could have been tackled, my presentation resulted in very critical remarks, and even the accusation that I was being unethical. It was suggested that my intended research would put local people in danger, and that I should conduct my research with Burmese people in a neighboring country instead. These responses were a reminder of some important considerations one needs to take into account when doing research in “difficult situations” (Sriram et al. 2009): the unequal power relationship between the foreign researcher and those living on the ground, and the responsibilities this brings about to find an acceptable trade-off between the potential risks and benefits of conducting research.

McCormick, Patrick. 2014. "Ethnic Histories: Reflections from the Field." Journal of Burma Studies 18 (1):123-35.



This year, 2013, Mon National Day celebrations in Rangoon were held at the Pyithuyin park just west of the Shwedagon. A few days before the main event was to start, a Mon friend invited me to visit him and some of his friends on the park grounds. I found them setting up a historical display, putting up pictures of sites known to Mon history and archaeology, and of well-known Mon historical figures. Under each they were adding captions with citations of their sources, many of which were English-language. The display was arranged as a walk-through, with pictures on the walls on both sides. Prominently displayed in front of the walk-through was a bibliography of academic works on Mon-related topics, largely works of history, among them works by Burmese, Mon, and foreign-trained scholars. The items listed probably represented what my friends had amongst themselves, or were books that they had studied during their own schooling. My friend’s friends were a small, informal group of young educated people who were working under the guidance of Mon lugyi or “elders.” I found this display fascinating because it revealed how many Mon people think of their own history, what messages about their history they want to convey, and what sources they use to tell that story. As does most Burmese writing on history, this display made extensive use of the work of foreign scholars.

Prasse-Freeman, Elliott. 2014. "Fostering an Objectionable Burma Discourse." Journal of Burma Studies 18 (1):97-122.



Truth about Burma always seems to escape one’s grasp. During the long years of military rule, those inside hungered for outside representations of their country — indeed, border-dwellers and exiles often insisted that the regime had morphed Burma into an ersatz version of itself, and that the various Thai-Burma border outposts had crafted more authentic copies than the original. Yet even so, those outside regularly described a feeling of being too far away to see Burma adequately. A similar set of schisms seems just as apparent as I write this article: descriptions of a majestic new Myanmar and those of the same old military-backed Burma seem to describe different places altogether, with authors of each respective version incapable of displacing the suspicion that there is more to each story.

Cook, Malcolm. 2014. "The Second Wave: Japanese FDI to Southeast Asia." ISEAS Perspective 2014/33.




- Japan has long been the largest national source of foreign direct investment (FDI) to Southeast Asia and is the largest source for Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia.

- Southeast Asia is benefitting from what appears to be the early stages of another major wave of Japanese FDI inflows. It is reminiscent of the first major wave which lasted a decade from 1988 to 1997 and helped trans- form the regional economy.

- In 2013 alone, Southeast Asia’s six largest economies received 17.3% of Japan’s global FDI outflows, roughly half of the amount received by the United States, two and a half times the amount received by China and eleven times more than India. Since 2009, these Southeast Asian economies have received three-fifths the amount of Japanese FDI as the United States, seven-fifths as much as China and five times more than India.

- Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand are the greatest beneficiaries of this second wave while Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore were the first wave’s largest recipients. The Philippines, despite having Southeast Asia’s second largest population base, largely missed the first wave and is doing the same again.

- Japanese small and medium enterprises could make a much greater contribution to this second wave. Effective home and host country support will be key for these firms to realise their Southeast Asian expansion plans.

- Preliminary figures suggest that this second wave to Southeast Asia consists predominantly of manufacturing sector FDI and not services or mining despite the upsurge in Japanese non-manufacturing FDI globally.

Tan, Danielle. 2014. "China in Laos - Is There Cause for Worry." ISEAS Perspective 2014/31.




- The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) programme launched by the Asian Development Bank has revitalised the historical trade routes and networks in mainland Southeast Asia, facilitating large flows of Chinese migrants through the North-South Economic Corridor linking Kunming to Bangkok.

- In just a decade, Chinese migration and capital have radically transformed the socio-economic landscape of Laos, particularly in the northern region. China currently ranks among the top three countries investing in Laos, and the number of its investments continues to rise due to China’s “going out” strategy.

- Chinese investment in natural resources (mining, hydropower, agriculture) and casino tourism has spurred Laos’ economic growth, but the transformation has come at a high price for both local communities and the environment.

- Conflicts over land between local communities and investors and among foreign investors are expected to increase as the government of Laos is pursuing its “turning-land-into-capital” strategy.

- Contrary to common assumptions, the Lao communist regime is not a helpless spectator and passive victim of Chinese expansion in capital and migration. The Lao rulers rely on their Chinese partners to serve as essential mediators between the state and the global economy in order to cope with the challenges of globalisation and to maintain their power at the same time.

Thu, Huong Le. 2014. "The Anti-Chinese Riots in Vietnam: Responses from the Ground." ISEAS Perspective 2014/32.




- On 2 May 2014, the state-owned China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) placed its deep sea drilling rig HD-981 in the disputed waters south of the Paracel Islands. According to Hanoi, the location was within the territory of the Vietnamese Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).

- This sparked a wave of peaceful demonstrations on 11 May. These protests came with slogans expressing opposition to the oil rig, to China’s presence in the EEZ, and evoked sentiments of patriotism for the protection of Vietnamese sovereignty.

- A second wave of protests was decidedly more violent. On 13 May violence, accompanied by strident anti-Chinese expressions broke out in the southern provinces of Binh Duong and Dong Nai which host Chinese, Taiwanese and Korean factories, as well as the Vietnam-Singapore Industrial Park. Around 351 factories were destroyed or damaged.

- The mainstream and international media were quick to blame ‘anti- Chinese’ sentiments for the violence, while explaining the destruction of non-Chinese owned factories as a case of mistaken identity. These expla- nations need to be re-considered.

- Vietnamese workers are keenly aware of their dependence on FDI. Some workers had even formed a human shield around the factories in an attempt to protect their jobs and livelihood.

- Local activists have also visited the provinces beset by riots to speak to witnesses who may potentially shed more light on the situation. There are suggestions that those leading the riots were, in fact, not workers.

Petri, Peter A., and Michael G. Plummer. 2014. "ASEAN Centrality and the ASEAN-US Economic Relationship." Policy Studies (East-West Center) No. 69.


The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is strategically significant because of its size, dynamism, and role in the Asian economic and security architectures. This paper examines how ASEAN seeks to strengthen these assets through "centrality" in intraregional and external policy decisions. It recommends a two-speed approach toward centrality in order to maximize regional incomes and benefit all member economies: first, selective engagement by ASEAN members in productive external partnerships and, second, vigorous policies to share gains across the region. This strategy has solid underpinnings in the Kemp-Wan theorem on trade agreements. It would warrant, for example, a Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement with incomplete ASEAN membership, complemented with policies to extend gains across the region. The United States could support this framework by pursuing deep relations with some ASEAN members, while broadly assisting the region's development.

Bertrand, Jacques. 2014. "Autonomy and Stability: The Perils of Implementation and “Divide-and-Rule” Tactics in Papua, Indonesia." Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 20 (2):174-99.

doi: 10.1080/13537113.2014.909157.


Autonomy is often seen as an institutional instrument to manage substate nationalist conflict. Its implementation is key in determining its impact on conflict. While the central state might be satisfied with the absence of violence and stability as a measure of success, an aggrieved group will view success as gaining new powers and new resources. Autonomy often unravels when different goals are being pursued during implementation. ?Special autonomy? in Papua failed because, first, the law was not the product of negotiation but of a solution that the central government imposed; second, Papuans remained divided on its utility and, ultimately, failed to seize the opportunity provided; third, the central government undermined the law in its attempts to curb secessionism, ultimately failing to make it credible.

Castella, Jean-Christophe, and Bounthanom Bouahom. 2014. "Farmer cooperatives are the missing link to meet market demands in Laos." Development in Practice 24 (2):185-98.

doi: 10.1080/09614524.2014.885495.


In the transition from subsistence to commercial agriculture, smallholders in Lao PDR need to get better organised to match market demand in terms of product volume and quality. This paper investigates the conditions for the emergence of cooperatives from existing farmers' groups. Our study revealed the importance of social networks and power relations as a factor of cohesion within groups. Local leadership plays a crucial role in connecting group members to the village and district institutions. Recommendations are provided to improve group management rules as a pre-requisite to turn groups into farmers' cooperatives.

Gautrin, Jean-Francois. 2014. "Connecting South Asia to Southeast Asia: Cross-Border Infrastructure Investments " ADBI Working Paper Series No.483.



Most of the trade between South Asia and Southeast Asia is by sea. However, with improved infrastructure and easier border crossing procedures, land traffic could grow to boost trade in goods, services, and tourism between the subregions. The purpose of the study is to analyze how to strengthen connectivity between the two subregions. Specifically, it is concerned with the role of cross-border transport infrastructure investments to improve connectivity. The author reviews all possible road and rail land corridors that would help create seamless transport connectivity. Missing gaps and corresponding transport infrastructure projects are identified, and projects are screened and prioritized. For the selected critical projects, the study recommends phased investments.

Viet Nguyen, Cuong, and Marrit van den Berg. 2014. "Informal Credit, Usury, or Support? A Case Study for Vietnam." The Developing Economies 52 (2):154-78.

doi: 10.1111/deve.12042.


The informal credit market remains an important source of finance for the poor in Vietnam. Yet, little if anything is known about the impact of informal loans on poverty and inequality, and the Vietnamese government has no policies towards the informal credit market. In the present study paper, we found that the effect of credit from friends and relatives on per capita expenditure is positive but not statistically significant. Meanwhile, the effect of credit from private moneylenders on per capita expenditure is positive and statistically significant. Borrowing from private moneylenders increases per capita expenditure of households by around 15%. Further, it reduced the poverty incidence of borrowers by around 8.5 percentage points in 2006 and significantly decreases the poverty gap index and the poverty-severity index. Borrowing from private moneylenders also reduces expenditure inequality, albeit at a very small magnitude.

Anderson, Warwick. 2014. "Making global health history: The postcolonial worldliness of biomedicine." Social History of Medicine 27 (2):372-84.

doi: 10.1093/shm/hkt126.


In imagining the 'global' as the product of unprecedented flows and circulations, do we tend to ignore its uneven terrain, heterogeneity, and contestation? How might we resist taking the hydraulic turn and instead write critical histories of 'global' health? Postcolonial analysis can offer critical and realistic histories of scale making in biomedicine, of the configuring of the local and the global in global health. Thus we might hold within the same analytic frame biomedical colonial patriotism in the Philippines, biocolonial collecting in highland New Guinea, and the technoscientific nationalism of Biopolis in contemporary Singapore. © 2014 The Author.

Anwar, Sajid, and Lan Phi Nguyen. 2014. "Is foreign direct investment productive? A case study of the regions of Vietnam." Journal of Business Research 67 (7):1376-87.

doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.08.015.


By making use of a recently released dataset that covers a large number of manufacturing firms over the period 2000-2005, this paper examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and FDI generated spillovers on total factor productivity (TFP) in eight regions of Vietnam. Unlike most existing studies, this paper focuses on the impact of spillovers that take place through both horizontal and vertical linkages. The results presented in this paper suggest that the impact of FDI spillovers on TFP varies considerably across regions. FDI spillovers generate a strong positive impact on TFP through backward linkages only in Red River Delta, South Central Coast, South East and Mekong River Delta while in other regions the impact is negative and mostly insignificant. The paper also examines the impact of the absorptive capacity on TFP growth in each of the eight geographical regions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Armando, Ade. 2014. "The greedy giants: Centralized television in post-authoritarian Indonesia." International Communication Gazette 76 (4-5):390-406.

doi: 10.1177/1748048514524106.


This article essentially shows how the development of commercial television in Indonesia has conflicted with the country’s media democratization, as illustrated by the growth of local media in the past 15 years. Compared to print media and radio, which are decentralized, Indonesia’s television industry is dominated by five large media corporations that are all based in the capital city of Jakarta. As a consequence, this fails to leave much growing space to television stations at a local level, which would be needed to strengthen Indonesia’s democratization. Media owners have successfully influenced the government in establishing a set of policies that sustain their dominance of the industry. Players within the television industry have even successfully swayed the direction of the broadcasting decentralization mandated by the Broadcasting Bill during Indonesia’s early political Reform period. The influence of these ‘Jakarta television stations’ stunted the development of television stations outside of Jakarta. Not only it deprives local actors of the economic value of developing their own television industry would bring, it also has resulted in the the loss of television's potential in functioning as a public sphere facilitating social control over democratic processes. Although the Reform era promised a new age of media democratization, the centralization of commercial television actually worsened media monopolies that were thought to have been done away with in post-Suharto Indonesia.

Auttawutikul, Siwanit, Kasemrut Wiwitkunkasem, and Duncan R. Smith. 2014. "Use of weblogs to enhance group learning and design creativity amongst students at a Thai University." Innovations in Education and Teaching International 51 (4):378-88.

doi: 10.1080/14703297.2013.796723.


This study reports on the introduction of weblogs as a part of the teaching environment for Thai students to facilitate group learning and enhance creativity. Assessment of progress was through formal creative thought testing, as well as a questionnaire with both structured and open questions. Results showed a significant improvement in assessed creativity at the end of the trial period with weblogs being perceived as enhancing both group learning and creativity. Overall, the results suggest that the use of weblogs provide an environment in which Thai students can more freely show individual creativity within an enhanced peer collectivism structure. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Beta, Annisa R. 2014. "Hijabers: How young urban muslim women redefine themselves in Indonesia." International Communication Gazette 76 (4-5):377-89.

doi: 10.1177/1748048514524103.


This paper analyzes the dissemination of ‘Hijaber’ style through different forms of cyber media (blogs and social network sites) in order to determine how young, computer savvy Muslim Indonesians explore their gender and religious identities while working in the ‘creative economy’ through cyberspace. This article shows the plurality and flexibility of the Hijaber trend—compared to more conventional forms—and explores its significance for urban Indonesian youth.

Burr, Rachel. 2014. "The complexity of morality: Being a 'good child' in Vietnam?" Journal of Moral Education 43 (2):156-68.

doi: 10.1080/03057240.2014.893421.


In this article I examine what it means to be a good child in Vietnam. Throughout the country ancestral worship is widely practiced. This traditionally places emphasis on the need for a boy child to continue the practice of worship into the next generation. Because of this, while the high value placed on the boy child has been tempered by the influence of communist rule and modernity, the eldest boy still often holds preferential status. Under such circumstances the good child is one who accepts his or her position within the hierarchical structure of the family and is also willing to subjugate his or her individual needs to the greater collective good. This might manifest itself in a child's 'choice' to work on the streets so that their earnings can be sent home to support other siblings through their schooling. Or it might show itself in the practice of children accepting and apparently supporting that fact that they have been sent to an orphanage or 'hidden' so that a parent can try for more male children. It would be naive though to conclude from this that boys and girls are automatically raised within separate moral frameworks. Instead this article proposes that at the local level what it means to be a good child is even more complex because the notion of the good, moral and filial child is shaped as much by family circumstances and expectation as it is by the mores and values of the wider society. © 2014 © 2014 Journal of Moral Education Ltd.

Chou, Bill. 2014. "Perceived threats and governing capacity: Building National identities in post-colonial Singapore and Macao." African and Asian Studies 13 (1-2):147-66.

doi: 10.1163/15692108-12341289.


Many of the past literature on small states focus on the foreign policies and political economies of liberal democracies. This paper examines the non-liberal democracies of Singapore and Macao in their construction of national identities. Non-liberal democracies are different from their democratic counterparts in their reactions to perceived threats. Instead of forming a corporatist system to make important decisions by consensus, both Singapore and Macao leadership exclude the participation of civil society in defining their national identities. Faced with high perceived threats and armed with strong governing capacity, Singapore succeeds in building a national identity overarching the cultural identities of major ethnic groups. In view of electoral setbacks, Singapore leaders have to include more public inputs into its policy making process, including the definition of national identity. On the contrary, the perceived threats of Macao are not pressing. The cultural and political affinity enables the post-colonial Macao to integrate smoothly with China's national identities defined by the Communist leadership. The relative weak capacity of the city government makes the building of national identities gradual. Its high degree of ethnic homogeneity has contributed to a process of nation building relatively free of disputes. © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Churngchow, Chidchanok, and Ruthaychonnee Sittichai. 2014. "Factors related to retention behaviour of teachers in Islamic private schools in three southernmost provinces in Thailand." Asian Social Science 10 (10):50-6.

doi: 10.5539/ass.v10n10p50.


This research aimed to study the factors that affect the persistence of ordinary teachers in private schools in three southernmost provinces of Thailand. The samples were 246 ordinary teachers in Islamic private schools divided into 2 categories: the first group was 131 teachers who remained an instructor in the school and the second group was 115 ex-teachers who had resigned from school. This was a mixed method research, using questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Discriminant analysis was employed for data analysis. It was found that only one discriminant variate differentiated between teachers who remain and those who had resigned; this vairate was the time period they had worked in schools. Results from interviews showed that for teachers to continue to work in Islamic private schools, there is a need to change the welfare system of the school teachers and develop a clear and transparent system for their salary promotion. Also, teachers should have more opportunity to show their full potential. Teachers also recommended that to promote teachers' morale and motivate them to remain teaching in schools, Ministry of Education should reform rules or regulations of teacher recruiting as government employees. These newly-created rules and regulations should be clear and transparent. Consequently, both religious and ordinary course teachers have opportunity to be recruited equally. They believed that this change could affect the quality of teaching in the schools in positive way. In conclusion, the Thai government should support education in Islamic private schools seriously. © the author(s).

d’Haenens, Leen, and Ilya Sunarwinadi. 2014. "Snapshots of current communication research in Indonesia." International Communication Gazette 76 (4-5):319-21.

doi: 10.1177/1748048514523076.


Davies, Sara E., Kimberly Nackers, and Sarah Teitt. 2014. "Women, Peace and Security as an ASEAN priority." Australian Journal of International Affairs 68 (3):333-55.

doi: 10.1080/10357718.2014.902030.


The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat and its member states have repeatedly professed their commitment to the protection and advancement of women's economic and human rights. Such commitments have included the Declaration of the Advancement of Women in the ASEAN Region in 1988, the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women in the ASEAN Region in 2004, and the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration in 2012, as well as the establishment of the ASEAN Committee on Women in 2002 and the ASEAN Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Women and Children in 2009. However, none of these regional commitments or institutions expressly take up the core concern of the Women, Peace and Security agenda set out in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 in 2000. ASEAN has no 1325 regional action plan and, amongst the ASEAN membership, the Philippines is the only state that has adopted a 1325 National Action Plan. The authors explore the possible reasons for the lack of ASEAN institutional engagement with 1325, outline the case for regional engagement, and suggest specific roles for the ASEAN Secretariat, donor governments and individual member states to commit to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 as a regional priority. © 2014 © 2014 Australian Institute of International Affairs.

Di Gregorio, Monica. 2014. "Gaining Access to the State: Political Opportunities and Agency in Forest Activism in Indonesia." Social Movement Studies 13 (3):381-98.

doi: 10.1080/14742837.2013.856297.


This paper investigates the complex nature of access to the state for environmental movement organisations (EMOs) and adopts an interactionist approach to explore inter-organisational networking between EMOs and state actors. The paper supports existing evidence that proximate political opportunities are in part contingent on the interests, claims and frames of policy actors. The main theoretical contribution of this paper is to illustrate that EMOs strategically adapt to existing opportunity environments and actively seek to engage state actors that are most receptive to their demands, as opposed to those that have most influence in the domain, and that new modes of governance facilitate such access. Using evidence from forest activism in Indonesia shows that lobbying less powerful but more receptive actors is a strategy that EMOs use to overcome limited political opportunities and that semi-independent multi-actor forums expand access of EMOs to potential state actor allies. The paper also shows that within the Indonesian context, these multi-stakeholders forums are actively supported by international organisations which therefore directly contribute to expanding opportunities for EMOs. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Faraz, Nahiyah Jaidi, and P.L. Rika Fatimah. 2014. "SMEs woodcrafters self-assessment on transformational leadership in Bantul regency, Indonesia." International Business Management 8 (2):97-105.

doi: 10.3923/ibm.2014.97.105.


The setting of the research is Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Bantul regency. The population covers 72 people and all them are respondents of this research. Regarding the similar characteristics of SMEs woodcrafters, this research used purposive sampling technique. The data collection consists of questionnaires, interviews and documentations. The researcher used the data analysis techniques are percentage, first order Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and rank order correlation. Research result shows that the construct of self-assessment of SMEs transformational leadership for woodcrafters theoretically hypothesized fits the empirical data as indicated by all high and significant factors. In addition, self-assessment of the SMEs woodcrafters to the implementation of the transformational leadership in Bantul regency has implemented all of the dimensions of transformational leadership like modeling, motivating, stimulating and advising which is level varies in other words the leadership style of SMEs woodcrafters in special territory of Yogyakarta is transformative enough. © Medwell Journals, 2014.

Forss, Teppo, Rayko Toshev, Tzong-Ru Lee, Kridsada Fankham-ai, and Kulwadee Bumrungkhet. 2014. "Learning from social housing policies - Key decision factor analysis of finish, chinese and thai models." International Journal of Innovation and Learning 15 (3):211-26.

doi: 10.1504/IJIL.2014.060874.


This work compares Chinese, Thai and Finnish social housing models in the context of their economic structure. It explores the variances in decision-making factors for affordable housing policies related to macroeconomic indicators such as urbanisation level, population growth, gross domestic product and human development index. Statistical analysis of the last 50 years economic development is presented. Revising these three countries models highlights the need for dynamic revaluation of decision factors priorities in time of economic turbulence. Policy makers and project developers can learn from data analysis to reorganised proactively social housing goals to face the uncertainties in policy development stages. © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Gazali, Effendi. 2014. "Learning by clicking: An experiment with social media democracy in Indonesia." International Communication Gazette 76 (4-5):425-39.

doi: 10.1177/1748048514524119.


This article revisits the current interplay between the government, the market, civil society, and the media in contemporary Indonesian political communication. Previous research showed a striking increase in the numbers of both Internet and social media users as well as cases of social media influence on the democratization process. Some scholars have pointed out the limitations of social media, such as the simplified narratives, larger media systems, and dominant meta-narratives. This includes the ‘many clicks, little sticks’ phenomenon, meaning that only a few of the many clicks resulted in widespread activism in the vast social media environment. This article includes more recent and nuanced interpretations from the various actors. The activists have continued their experiments—providing two-way information, encouraging rapid interaction, creating much participation, and expanding role decentralization. In a ‘network of networks’ spirit they have been doing a lot of clicking, and learning a lot in the process.

Gray, Clark, Elizabeth Frankenberg, Thomas Gillespie, Cecep Sumantri, and Duncan Thomas. 2014. "Studying Displacement After a Disaster Using Large-Scale Survey Methods: Sumatra After the 2004 Tsunami." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 104 (3):594-612.

doi: 10.1080/00045608.2014.892351.


Understanding of human vulnerability to environmental change has advanced in recent years, but measuring vulnerability and interpreting mobility across many sites differentially affected by change remains a significant challenge. Drawing on longitudinal data collected on the same respondents who were living in coastal areas of Indonesia before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and were reinterviewed after the tsunami, this article illustrates how the combination of population-based survey methods, satellite imagery and multivariate statistical analyses has the potential to provide new insights into vulnerability, mobility, and impacts of major disasters on population well-being. The data are used to map and analyze vulnerability to post-tsunami displacement across the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra and to compare patterns of migration after the tsunami between damaged areas and areas not directly affected by the tsunami. The comparison reveals that migration after a disaster is less selective overall than migration in other contexts. Gender and age, for example, are strong predictors of moving from undamaged areas but are not related to displacement in areas experiencing damage. In our analyses, traditional predictors of vulnerability do not always operate in expected directions. Low levels of socioeconomic status and education were not predictive of moving after the tsunami, although for those who did move, they were predictive of displacement to a camp rather than a private home. This survey-based approach, although not without difficulties, is broadly applicable to many topics in human-environment research and potentially opens the door to rigorous testing of new hypotheses in this literature. © 2014 © 2014 by Association of American Geographers.

Habidin, Nurul Fadly, Nurul Aifaa Shazali, Naimah Ali, Nur Afni Khaidir, and Noor Hidayah Jamaludin. 2014. "Exploring lean healthcare practice and supply chain innovation for Malaysian healthcare industry." International Journal of Business Excellence 7 (3):394-410.

doi: 10.1504/IJBEX.2014.060782.


Lean and supply chain are two quality practices which are the most effective business improvement techniques that focus on continuous improvement process. They are adopted to improve business process, reduce waste, reduce defects, reduce cycle times, fast delivery at the minimal cost and accelerate the process in identifying the best solution practices for ensuring excellence in operational and service management. The purpose of this study is to explore lean healthcare practice adopted by Malaysian healthcare industry and the relationship between lean healthcare practices and supply chain innovation performance. Four dimensions of lean healthcare practice (leadership, employee involvement, organisational culture, customer focus) were determined to have a significant and positive direct relationship with supply chain innovation performance efforts. Furthermore, through this analysis, a structural relationship model using structural equation modelling (SEM) has been proposed. The research hypotheses are being developed based on the proposed conceptual model and reviewed. Finally, the paper study culminates with suggested future research work. © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh, Insannul Kamil, Azalika Delati, and Richard Reed. 2014. "Implementing a web-based decision support system for disaster logistics: A case study of an evacuation location assessment for Indonesia." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 9:38-47.

doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2014.02.004.


Decision support systems have increasingly played a critical role in disaster logistics. This study outlines the processes required to build an effective and reliable decision support system to assess the feasibility of public facilities during an evacuation after a disaster has occurred. The purpose of this study is to build a model of a web-aided decision support system to assess the extent to which public facilities can be used as evacuation centers for the victims of an earthquake and/or tsunami. An outcome from this research is an innovative system with direct web-based accessibility, involves many decision-makers and employs multiple criteria and inputs. Even though the system has been specifically designed for evacuation scenarios in Indonesia, the system can be used for disaster scenarios in other countries as well. There are several stages in this study where the first stage identifies and selects attributes, assembles a comprehensive computer application, and employs object-oriented programming (OOP), verification and validation of the system. The role of information systems and decision support systems are critical when informing decision-makers about evacuation location alternatives and to assess their feasibility immediately after a disaster occurs. The results from this study confirm that this system can provide critical and timely insights into complex evacuation scenarios. An additional benefit of this system is the user-friendly web-based application ensuring data access from any global location with internet access. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Haseeb, Muhammad, Nira Hariyatie Hartani, Norâ Aznin Abu Bakar, Muhammad Azam, and Sallahuddin Hassan. 2014. "Exports, foreign direct investment and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Malaysia (1971-2013)." American Journal of Applied Sciences 11 (6):1010-5.

doi: 10.3844/ajassp.2014.1010.1015.


The main objective of this study is to empirically investigate the relationship between exports, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and the economic growth in Malaysia. Records of annual time series data from the year 1971 till 2013 have been utilized for this purpose. Upon testing the data for stationarity, the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model has been applied for the purpose of empirical investigation. The empirical results indicate that the productivity factor and externality effect of exports on the non-export sector are found to be statistically, positively significant, with the exports also having a positive impact on the economic growth and FDI of the country. The results support Exports Led Growth (ELG) and FDI-Led economic Growth (FLG) in Malaysia. The finding further suggests that Malaysia should continuous pursue exports promotion and a liberal investment economic policy in order to maintain and bolster overall economic growth. © 2014 Science Publication.

Hendriyani, Ed Hollander, Leen d'Haenens, and Johannes Beentjes. 2014. "Views on children's media use in Indonesia: Parents, children, and teachers." International Communication Gazette 76 (4-5):322-39.

doi: 10.1177/1748048514523527.


This article describes the views of parents, children, and teachers concerning media use by Indonesian children. Survey data of parents (N = 462), children (N = 589), and teachers (N = 104) show that children see themselves as more advanced users of new media than their parents. Their perception of their media experiences is also markedly different from that of their parents, while teachers' views are comparable to those of the parents. The latter claim to have established media use rules, which children tend to view as guidelines subject to debate rather than binding instructions. There is different use of old versus new media, parents show little awareness of or involvement with newer media.

Heng, Kreng. 2014. "The Relationships between Student Engagement and the Academic Achievement of First-Year University Students in Cambodia." Asia-Pacific Education Researcher 23 (2):179-89.

doi: 10.1007/s40299-013-0095-8.


This study examined the relationships between student engagement in academically relevant activities and their academic achievement in the first year of university in Cambodia, and tested the presence of conditional effects of student engagement on achievement by students' gender, geographical origin, and pre-university academic experience. The participants were 919 first-year students at nine universities in Phnom Penh City. Student engagement was measured using a revised version of the National Survey of Student Engagement and the College Student Experiences Questionnaire. The regression analyses revealed that the student engagement in time spent on out-of-class course-related tasks, homework/tasks, and active participation in classroom settings added significant values to Cambodian student achievement. Contrary to the extensive student engagement literature in developed countries, student engagement in out-of-class peer learning and extensive reading did not make any meaningful impacts on student achievement in the present study. Certain effects of student engagement on achievement tended to differ in magnitude by students' pre-university academic experience and geographical origin. Implications for policy are discussed with a call for solid programs to promote and enhance the quality of student engagement activities on-and off-campus, especially among the academically disadvantaged students. © 2013 De La Salle University.

Ho, Kim Hin/David, and Kwame Addae-Dapaah. 2014. "Real estate market cyclical dynamics: The prime office sectors of Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and Hong Kong." International Journal of Managerial Finance 10 (2):241-62.

doi: 10.1108/IJMF-10-2013-0108.


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to help us understand the real estate cycle and offers an analysis using a vector auto regression (VAR) model. The authors study the key international cities of Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. The authors find four key outcomes. One, the real estate cycle is generally different from the underlying business cycle in local markets for the cities studies. Two, the real estate cycle is more exaggerated in the construction and development areas than in rents and vacancies. Three, the vacancy cycle tends to lead the rental cycle. And four, new construction completions tend to peak when vacancy is also peaking. The authors believe that future research should try to help understand the linkages that drive these outcomes. For example, are rigidities in the local permit and construction markets responsible for the link between construction peaks and vacancy peaks? Design/methodology/approach: Real estate market cyclical dynamics and its estimation via VAR model offers an insightful set of practical and empirical models. It affirms a comprehensive theoretical underpinning for analysing the prime office and residential sectors of the capitol cities of Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and Hong Kong in the fast developing Asia region. Its unrestricted form also provides an effective and insightful way of modelling real estate market cyclical dynamics utilising only real estate market indicators, furnished by real estate market data providers. Findings: The office rental VAR model for Singapore (SOR), KL (KOR) and HK (HOR) show good fits. In the HOR model, rents and vacancies are negatively signed and significant for certain lagged relationships with other variables and with rents themselves. The office CV VAR model for Singapore (SOCV), KL (KOCV) and HK (HOCV) show good fits. In the HOCV model, capital values (CVs) and initial yields are negatively signed and significant for certain lagged relationships with other variables and with CVs themselves. Impulse response functions specified for seven years to mirror a medium-term real estate market cycle "die out" to zero for the stationary VAR models that are estimated for the endogenous variables. The accumulated responses asymptote to some non-zero constant. Practical implications: The VAR model offers a complete and meaningful dynamic system of solely real estate variables for international real estate investors and policy makers in decision making. Its unrestricted form offers an effective and insightful way of modelling real estate market cyclical dynamics utilising only real estate market indicators, which can be reliably provided by a dedicated real estate information and consultancy provider of international standing. Originality/value: The theoretical model offers a complete dynamic model system of the real estate space market, comprising a unique system of six linked equations that denote the relationship among supply, demand, construction, vacancy and rent over time, inclusive of price response slopes and lags. The VAR model enables the investigation of the effect of the lagged values of all the variables concerned. It also enables the explicit and rigorous quantitative forecasts of say rents and CVs when the rest of the variable can be forecasted beforehand. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Ibrahim, Mansor H., and Kanokwan Chancharoenchai. 2014. "How inflationary are oil price hikes? A disaggregated look at Thailand using symmetric and asymmetric cointegration models." Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 19 (3):409-22.

doi: 10.1080/13547860.2013.820470.


The present paper analyzes the inflationary effects of oil prices at the aggregate and disaggregated levels for Thailand using symmetric and asymmetric cointegration and error-correction modeling approaches. The cointegration test results suggest the presence of long-run relations between oil prices and the following price indices: aggregate consumer price index, non-food and beverage price index, housing and furnishing price index, energy price index, non-raw food and energy price index and transportation and communication price index. Meanwhile, food and beverage price index and raw food price index are not cointegrated with the oil prices. From the dynamic analyses, we uncover evidence for asymmetric adjustments of the aggregate consumer prices, the non-food and beverage prices and the housing and furnishing prices towards their long-run values. Further, the effects of oil prices on inflation are observed to be significant in all goods sectors in the short run. The largest impacts of oil price changes are on the energy price inflation followed by the transportation and communication price inflation and the non-raw food and energy price inflation. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Inayatullah, Sohail, and Ivana Milojević. 2014. "Augmented reality, the Murabbi and the democratization of higher education: Alternative futures of higher education in Malaysia." On the Horizon 22 (2):110-26.

doi: 10.1108/OTH-08-2013-0029.


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the scenarios, visions and strategies that resulted from a five-day foresight workshop for AKEPT (Higher Education Leadership Academy), the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: An anticipatory action-learning course/workshop with over 50 lecturers and deans framed by the "six pillars" futures approach. Methods given the most attention were: the futures triangle; causal layered analysis; and scenario planning. Lecturers deliberated for the first three days, and deans for the last two. After their debates, the lecturers and deans presented their findings and recommendations to each other, and to the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. As well, they considered how they as individual scholars can also pursue specific actionable steps towards their preferred futures visions. Findings: The recommendations by lecturers and deans can be systematized in the following categories: establishment of a pilot project; enhancement of digital teaching and learning processes; customization of degrees; changing of the culture in higher education; enhancing collaboration; supporting research activities; rethinking of dominant frames of reference; and anticipating upcoming futures trends. Research limitations/implications: As the process included lecturers and deans as key participants, and not, for example, students or the community, stakeholder perspectives are limited. Specific actionable steps, as per recommendations, are being pursued by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia, as well as by individual participants. Originality/value: Description of an action learning process in its second year. Year three will continue with a different group of participants who will reflect on the initial findings presented here. Description of the foresight process and findings of this case study may be of value to other ministries of higher education in the region and elsewhere. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Knodel, John. 2014. "Is Intergenerational Solidarity Really on the Decline? Cautionary Evidence from Thailand." Asian Population Studies 10 (2):176-94.

doi: 10.1080/17441730.2014.902160.


Development is commonly assumed to undermine intergenerational solidarity in developing countries. Evidence from a series of surveys in Thailand calls this assumption into question. Intergenerational support networks have remained intact despite extensive social and economic development. Despite the recent universalisation of the Old Age Allowance Programme (OAA), filial monetary support remains relatively unchanged. Although children are less frequently cited as their main source of income, this likely arises because increased income from other sources, especially OAA payments, has simply displaced children with regards to the largest source. Non-monetary material support and visits and phone calls remain common. In numerous respects parents and adult children adapted to social and economic changes in ways that maintain family relationships and support exchanges. Nevertheless, in the future, older Thais will have fewer and increasingly geographically dispersed children raising important challenges, especially regarding how long-term personal care needs will be met. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Köhl, Margarita Marie, and Gerit Götzenbrucker. 2014. "Networked technologies as emotional resources? Exploring emerging emotional cultures on social network sites such as Facebook and Hi5: A trans-cultural study." Media, Culture and Society 36 (4):508-25.

doi: 10.1177/0163443714523813.


This trans-cultural study deals with the question whether social network sites (SNS)may be considered 'third places', where young people find an unrestricted space for self-expression and reflection apart from formal environments (such as universities) and parental control, as well as whether the perception and adoption of such services varies among different cultural communities. To assess these questions, group discussions, qualitative interviews (n = 25) and an online survey (n = 757) were conducted in Thailand and Austria. While all of the respondents use SNS for lifelogging - storing and sharing life experience - the perception of emotional third-place qualities of SNS varies among young people living in Thailand and Austria. The findings show that some effects related to emotional aspects of technology usage might result from the stage of diffusion of technology, while aspects of emotional experience and expression might be influenced by cultural models. © The Author(s) 2014.

Lee, Seung Chun. 2014. "A post-mortem on the Malaysian content-based instruction initiative." Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 24 (1):41-59.

doi: 10.1075/japc.24.1.03lee.


This is a post-mortem on Malaysian TeSME (Teaching of Science and Mathematics in English) program based on its comparison with Canadian immersion programs. Malaysia and Canada have some common sociological aspects such as the size of population, the ratio of indigenous people and immigrants, and multilingual contexts. It also has in common various core elements in the set of criteria proposed by Swain and Johnson (1997) to define a prototypical immersion program. Thus, the lessons Canadians have learned from immersion may be seen as significant guiding light for TeSME and other attempts of content-based instruction programs. Canadian immersion has been different from TeSME at least in terms of three core features: overt support exists for the L1; the teachers are bilingual; and the classroom culture is that of the local L1 community. These differences made four issues more prominent: Learning outcome of TeSME; mainstay of TeSME; judicious use of L1; and function of TeSME. Finally some suggestions are proposed: give higher priority to promoting concept development across languages for now; make English classes more effective; promote bilingualism in TeSME; and extend TeSME's function to understanding and integrating other cultures and languages. © John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Maclean, Ken 2014. "Counter-accounting with invisible data: The struggle for transparency in Myanmar's energy sector." Political and Legal Anthropology Review 37 (1):10-28.

doi: 10.1111/plar.12048.


This article examines the counter-accounting methods one NGO, EarthRights International (ERI), uses to make Myanmar's notoriously opaque energy sector more transparent. ERI's methodological approach relies heavily on the identification of "invisible data," which do not appear in the statistics that governments and foreign energy companies release concerning their joint ventures. However, the data leave patterned traces in other statistical financial data. ERI asserts that it is possible to reconstruct joint venture balance sheets by comparing these traces against what the principles have not disclosed, such as with the controversial Yadana pipeline and the precedent-setting human rights lawsuit connected to it. The choices that ERI made illustrate how financial "facts" are fashioned rather than found, and that technical decisions regarding who does the counting, what gets counted, and what is disclosed to whom are profoundly political in nature. Such decisions also foreground key limitations of NGO-led revenue transparency projects, especially in resource-rich countries. Greater data disclosure does not necessarily result in increased transparency. Rather, the proliferation of structured and unstructured data sources (information that is organized and readily searchable versus information that is not) often leads to greater disagreement among key stakeholders regarding the relevance, neutrality, intelligibility, and verifiability of the numbers available for audit. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

Majid, Munir 2014. "Southeast Asian view of China's 'not so neighbourly' rise." International Politics 51 (3):398-403.

doi: 10.1057/ip.2014.12.


Nowhere in the world has the rise of China had such a massive economic impact as it has in Southeast Asia. Yet over the last few years attitudes towards China in many countries in the region have moved from being positive and benign towards becoming suspicious, perplexed and negative. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Misalucha, Charmaine G. . 2014. "The Language of Security in Philippine-US Relations." African and Asian Studies 13 (1-2):121-46.

doi: 10.1163/15692108-12341288.


There is a need to reformulate the way in which we view international relations. Rather than simply a play at an obscure theater with the same characters reprising their respective roles based on an old script, international relations need to be seen as a play at the world stage whose script is always being reviewed, revised, rewritten, and renegotiated by characters who are actively searching for ways to be accommodated. In this way, the characters and the roles they play are provisional: they become who or what they are because of actions they take, and not necessarily because they are fated to be revered or condemned. To achieve the fluid nature of this script, one must pay attention to language games. These games allow for the participation of both sides of the equation - the Philippines and the United States - in the creation of the structure and direction of their relationship. © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Mokhlis, Safiek 2014. "The image of retailing as a graduate career: Evidence from Malaysia." International Business Management 8 (2):146-52.

doi: 10.3923/ibm.2014.146.152.


To successfully compete in the 21st century, retailing must be able to attract, recruit and retain a competent workforce. Due to unprecedented growth in organized retailing, more management careers are available to young people than ever before yet retailers face obstacles in recruiting talented graduates due to perceptions that retailing offers a low quality of work-life. This study explored Malaysian undergraduates views of retailing as a career choice. A quantitative methodology, using responses given by 271 marketing students was employed in the analysis. The descriptive analysis revealed that students do not have a noticeably enthusiastic view of retailing. The factors associated with retailing as a career were mixed and include a variety of negative connotations. A comparison was made between the views expressed by three groups of students: Those who were intended to pursue retailing as a career, those who were definitely not doing so and those who were undecided. The results indicate that there was substantially more congruence between pro-retailing students perceptions of a preferred career and their perception of retailing than there were for the undecided and anti-retailing students. The results of this research suggest several implications for marketing educators and graduate recruiters. © Medwell Journals, 2014.

Montgomery, Heather. 2014. "Child prostitution as filial duty? The morality of child-rearing in a slum community in Thailand." Journal of Moral Education 43 (2):169-82.

doi: 10.1080/03057240.2014.893420.


It has been claimed that there are universal goals of child-rearing, such as survival of the child or the promotion of their capacity to contribute to economic and social reproduction. Yet in certain circumstances parents appear to pursue child-rearing practices that actively harm children, threaten their survival and inhibit their ability to grow up to be effective adult members of their communities. This article will discuss these issues in the case of one group of child prostitutes in Thailand and their families at a particular point in time. Although the work they did was physically dangerous and difficult, both parents and children claimed that their families were loving and functional and that selling sex was a way to keep the family together. Morality was seen in terms of reciprocity rather than sexual transgression and this article will explore the morality of child-rearing in this context and the relationships between family members. © 2014 © 2014 Journal of Moral Education Ltd.

Mostafanezhad, Mary. 2014. "Volunteer tourism and the popular humanitarian gaze." Geoforum 54:111-8.

doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.04.004.


With an increasing number of tourists 'vacationing like Brangelina' (Fitzpatrick, 2007), volunteer tourism has become one of the fastest growing niche tourism markets in the world. In this article I develop the popular humanitarian gaze as an analytic to describe the geopolitical assemblage of institutions, cultural practices and actors (e.g. celebrity humanitarians, alternative consumers and volunteer tourists) that play a critical role in the privatization and depoliticization of popular humanitarian interventions. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among three non-governmental organizations that use volunteer tourism as a social and economic development strategy as well as popular media texts, I argue that the popular humanitarian gaze co-produces and extends geopolitical discourses of North-South relations that naturalize political, economic and social inequality. Volunteer tourism in particular, I argue, perpetuates a popular humanitarian gaze that reframes contemporary humanitarianism as an empathetic gesture of commoditized concern. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Muchtar, Nurhaya, and Jeffrey A Ritchey. 2014. "Preaching, community, and convergence: Use of old and new media by progressive Indonesian Islamic leaders." International Communication Gazette 76 (4-5):360-76.

doi: 10.1177/1748048514524099.


The role of religious leaders in countries with very large Muslim populations such as Indonesia continues to attract world attention. However, mainstream media often focus on fundamentalist Muslim clerics. What seems to be missing from these narratives is efforts by moderate Muslim leaders to thwart fundamentalism by improving their communication style and their use of media and technology in order to reach young people as well as the wider community. This article explores the communication approaches and methods favored by Indonesian Islamic leaders—including use of both conventional and cutting-edge technology—to communicate with their followers. Interviews with 10 Muslim leaders were conducted in order to better understand their rich experiences. Findings suggest that Islamic preachers have embraced new technology and new media to communicate with their followers and attract a younger audience.

Ng, Irene Y.H. 2014. "Education and intergenerational mobility in Singapore." Educational Review 66 (3):362-76.

doi: 10.1080/00131911.2013.780008.


International research on the effects of educational regimes on intergenerational mobility suggests that Singapore's education system possesses characteristics that tend to decrease intergenerational mobility. These characteristics include ability-based and school-based streaming, privatization of basic and tertiary education, expansion of tertiary education while increasing fees, and possibly regressive public expenditure on education. These characteristics are motivated by a belief in offering multiple pathways for success, and thereby developing a globally competitive workforce. However, comparisons between Singapore and Finland suggest that greater equity and mobility can be achieved without necessarily compromising students' performance and the nation's economic competitiveness. Given wide income disparity and at best moderate intergenerational mobility in Singapore, evaluations of the mobility effects of the various characteristics of Singapore's education system should be conducted. Priority should be given to rethinking Singapore's educational model. Remedial interventions such as bursaries and peripheral interventions such as the regulation of early education or private tuition have limited effectiveness if the main system reinforces immobility. The lessons in this study for Singapore can also be extended to other countries with differentiated education systems. © 2013 Educational Review.

Nguyen, Thanh Pham Thien, Eduardo Roca, and Parmendra Sharma. 2014. "How efficient is the banking system of Asia's next economic dragon? Evidence from rolling DEA windows." Applied Economics 46 (22):2665-84.

doi: 10.1080/00036846.2014.909578.


Vietnam is now widely regarded as a rising economic star and the next economic dragon of Asia. Its banking system has played a key role in this stellar economic performance. Since 1990, Vietnam's banking system has undergone significant changes which saw its composition transformed from being state banks only to now being both state as well as private banks, and has performed generally well in terms of growth, profitability and stability. But is it efficient? We conduct a dynamic analysis of the level and trend of the cost and profit efficiency of the Vietnamese banking sector over the period 1995 to 2011 taking into account the Asian and Global Financial crises. We use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Windows Analysis approach and adjust for bank size in calculating the average efficiency score of the banking system. Our empirical findings show that the cost and profit efficiency of the Vietnamese banking system averaged around 0.90 and 0.75, respectively, with the state banks being more efficient than the private banks and with efficiency experiencing an upward trend over the analysis period. Moreover, we find that the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) and Asian Financial Crisis (AFC) did not significantly affect the efficiency of the whole Vietnamese banking system. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Nha, Phung Xuan, and Le Quan. 2014. "Response of Vietnamese private enterprises' leader under global financial crisis: From theorical to empirical approach." Asian Social Science 10 (9):26-39.

doi: 10.5539/ass.v10n9p26.


The recent problems of Vietnam enterprises' bankruptcy and ineffective performance under the impact of global financial crisis 2008 - 2009 had raised questions about how important leadership is and how to support leaders in enhancing their leadership in order to keeping their enterprises alive with the hardship. This paper aims to presents an empirical study of business leaders through business decisions they made during 2008-2012 to ensure their companies' survival; their forecasts and expectations for when the recession is over and the competencies needed for successful leadership in times of recession. The survey sample was composed of 478 CEO and 561 senior managers in Vietnamese private enterprises. The results indicate that 84% of the surveyed leaders agreed with much longer time to tender economic recovery. Besides, forecasted leadership and management performance were just at moderate level, under 3.25 on the average. Struggling with challenges of recession, the leaders recognized some necessary adjustments and adaptations in which business environment becomes increasingly complex and unpredictable and requires greater flexible leaderships. Especially, amongst the 14 factors, sustainability, working enthusiasm and willingness to take risk appear to be more responded in what leaders should do in times of economic downturn. Meantime, it also can be concluded from the survey of senior manager about leader's needed competences that all values are under 4.0, which means no leadership competencies or skills is evaluated as good or excellent. © the author(s).

Noh, Abdillah 2014. "Historical institutionalism and economic diversification: The case of Malaysia." Asian Social Science 10 (9):40-50.

doi: 10.5539/ass.v10n9p40.


This paper argues that Malaysia's ability to diversify its economy and not be overly reliant on natural resource is due to the state's institutional character and its historical process. Malaysia's ability to avoid the resource curse rests on two factors. First, the path dependent nature of Malaysia's economic arrangement - the prior existence of a thriving private sector and the late entry of commercial oil production and - provides the state with increasing returns to economic diversification. Second, Malaysia's consociational arrangement imposes limits on policy options, giving the state little choice but to continue to adopt economic diversification strategies to keep to consociationalism's distributive qualities. © the author(s).

Ortega, Arnisson Andre C. 2014. "Mapping Manila's Mega-Urban Region: A spatio-demographic accounting using small-area census data." Asian Population Studies 10 (2):208-35.

doi: 10.1080/17441730.2014.902163.


The global rise of mega-urban regions (MUR) signifies the impending dominance of this new urban form. Focusing on Manila's MUR, this paper contributes by mapping the demographic landscape of the MUR to account for its spatial form, patterns and trajectories. Using a hotspot analysis of disaggregated barangay-level data, significant 'local' clusters of population growth and decline are calculated over two decades. When mapped, three local patterns are observed: (1) outward expansion of high- and low-growth clusters; (2) development of new growth nodes on the fringes; and (3) recent emergence of high-growth clusters in the core. The patterns illustrate the volatile and chameleon-like configurations of the MUR. The paper also demonstrates how calculated clusters may be used as contextual compasses to expose critical mega-urban processes. With local-level data on settlement histories, development projects and socio-political events, the paper historicises landuse change, demolitions and relocations to unveil site-specific dispossessions in the MUR. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Phan, Peter C. . 2014. "Christianity in Vietnam today (1975-2013): Contemporary challenges and opportunities." International journal for the Study of the Christian Church 14 (1):3-21.

doi: 10.1080/1474225X.2014.882706.


This article surveys the situation of Christianity in Vietnam since the fall of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) to the Communist North Vietnam in April 1975. The predominant form of Vietnamese Christianity being Roman Catholic, the bulk of the article is devoted to it, but attention will also be given to the Protestant and Evangelical/Pentecostal Churches. (There is no Orthodox Church in Vietnam.) Of course, Christianity is not the only religion in Vietnam. It is the latest comer to the scene, after Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, and Islam. There are as well indigenous religions, principally Caodaism and Hoa Hao Buddhism. Of these non-Christian religious traditions only passing remarks will be made. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Phommavong, Saithong, and Erika Sörensson. 2014. "Ethnic tourism in Lao PDR: gendered divisions of labour in community-based tourism for poverty reduction." Current Issues in Tourism 17 (4):350-62.

doi: 10.1080/13683500.2012.721758.


A simultaneous analysis of gender and ethnicity provides a fuller understanding of how tourism initiatives benefit marginalised groups in developing countries. In this article, the gendered division of labour is analysed as a way to understand the micro-politics of ethnic tourism production aiming at poverty reduction in Laos. The aim is to demonstrate how constructions of gender and ethnicity impact on women's possibilities to benefit from community-based pro-poor tourism initiatives. Socially constructed notions of gendered behaviour influence divisions of tourism labour in specific spatialities, which we argue is crucial knowledge in the implementation of tourism projects aiming at poverty reduction. The assumption that 'the poor' constitute a homogenous group might hide an uneven distribution of tourism benefits in local communities. By focusing on factors which marginalise women, the article demonstrates inequalities between men and women in the division of tourism work. A village in northern Laos is used as a case study to examine aspects impacting on gendered divisions of labour in community-based tourism in Laos. Two examples, the Akha people's belief in and worship of spirits, and provision of massage, are used to illuminate reasons behind gendered imbalances in more detail. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Prabowo, Muhammad Agung, Wisnu Untoro, Irwan Trinugroho, and Arifin Angriawanb. 2014. "State-owned enterprises, efficiency and performance: The case of Indonesia." International Business Management 8 (2):153-8.

doi: 10.3923/ibm.2014.153.158.


Researchers investigate the efficiency and performance of partially privatized Indonesian State-Owned Enterprise (SOEs). Researchers find that partially privatized Indonesian SOEs have higher efficiency and performance than those of their private-owned counterparts. The results might suggest that the SOEs might benefit from better corporate governance, high market power and other privileges and that the benefits are greater than the policy burdens imposed on these firms. © Medwell Journals,2014.

Pryce, Thomas Oliver, Mitch Hendrickson, Kaseka Phon, Sovichetra Chan, Michael F. Charlton, Stéphanie Leroy, Philippe Dillmann, and Quan Hua. 2014. "The Iron Kuay of Cambodia: Tracing the role of peripheral populations in Angkorian to colonial Cambodia via a 1200 year old industrial landscape." Journal of Archaeological Science 47 (1):142-63.

doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2014.04.009.


The Industries of Angkor Project (INDAP) is the first scientific study combining investigation of the chronology, supply network and technology of raw and finished iron within Angkorian (9th to 15th c. AD), Middle Period (15th to 19th c. AD) and Colonial (1863-1953) Cambodia. This paper is concerned with the production technology employed at five iron smelting sites in the northern province of Preah Vihear, three loci within the enclosure walls of the Angkorian Preah Khan complex and two, c. 30km east, near Phnom Dek or 'Iron Mountain'. The Phnom Dek area is ahistoric homeland of the ethnic minority Kuay people, who continued to smelt iron from local mineral sources into the 1940s. With the aim of testing a previously proposed 'Angkorian Kuay' hypothesis, that Kuay ancestors were responsible for Angkorian period iron smelting at Preah Khan of Kompong Svay (Preah Khan), the objective of this preliminary study was to establish whether any technological continuity could be detected across a 1200 year old industrial landscape, and thus if any socio-culturally homologous relations could be proposed for the ironmakers respectively responsible. Our preliminary results suggest that the iron smelting remains at Preah Khan date from Angkor's terminal phase and into the subsequent Middle Period, whereas as the two studied production sites near Phnom Dek range from the 9th-11th c. AD and to the 19th/20th c. AD. Preah Khan and Phnom Dek production systems appear to have used different iron ore sources but, in the absence of well-preserved furnace remains, statistical analysis of slag chemistry indicates a technological conservatism spanning more than a millennium. At this stage the 'Angkorian Kuay' model can be neither rejected nor sustained but the complexity of Preah Vihear province's settlement and industrial history is becoming increasingly apparent and will only become clearer with further excavation and study of chronologically and geographically intermediate sites. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Purnomo, Herry, Philippe Guizol, San Afri Awang, Wahyu Wardhana, Rika Harini Irawati, and Daren Rennaldi. 2014. "Communicative Action to Level the Playing Field in Forest Plantations in Indonesia." Journal of Sustainable Forestry 33 (4):337-57.

doi: 10.1080/10549811.2014.888355.


The government of Indonesia allocated state land to private companies to establish forest plantations. However, ownership of this land was contested by some Sumatran communities. The plantation company, endorsed by the government, quickly developed a partnership to resolve the conflict, but this was unclear and inequitable. Action research was carried out to facilitate communication among stakeholders. This communicative action changed some perceptions and shared values began to emerge. A forum was established, which contributed to equitability producing a better partnership. This research is a model for empowering local communities in climate change, bioenergy, and food security negotiations. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Rakhmani, Inaya. 2014. "The commercialization of da'wah: Understanding Indonesian Sinetron and their portrayal of Islam." International Communication Gazette 76 (4-5):340-59.

doi: 10.1177/1748048514523528.


The impact of media industrialization on mediated religious expression all over the world has been substantial, and this study tries to understand the Indonesian case by looking at the intersections between commerce and Islamic expression. Focusing on Indonesian Islamic sinetron (soap operas), we shall see that contrasting ideological motivations among producers have resulted in particular narratives within their content. Despite these peculiarities, all narratives use Islamic teachings to address societal issues experienced by middle-class Indonesian Muslims. This, in turn, projects an image of Indonesian Islam that blurs existing political divisions in Indonesian society. This article argues that the sinetron plots are inherently a commercialization of da'wah (proselytizing of Islam).

Rudnyckyj, Daromir 2014. "Islamic finance and the afterlives of development in malaysia." Political and Legal Anthropology Review 37 (1):69-88.

doi: 10.1111/plar.12051.


Government regulators, Islamic scholars, finance professionals, and secular academics have recently taken steps to turn Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia's capital, into a global hub for Islamic finance. This article describes some of the actions these actors have taken to position Kuala Lumpur as the central node in this emerging financial system. This article highlights key principles of Islamic finance and the debates in which practitioners are engaged while developing a shariah-compliant financial system. It shows how these plans draw on previous efforts by the Malaysian state-in part in response to Islamist political critiques-to design techniques for the provision of capital commensurable with both Islam and capitalism. In so doing, Malaysia's Islamic finance project expresses four dimensions of the afterlives of development: the creation of alternative political and economic networks; a managerial role for the state; the creation of new forms of expertise; and the assemblage of religious and economic practices, two domains that earlier efforts toward secular modernization had presumed separate. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

Saim, Nor Jana, Mona Dufåker, and Mehdi Ghazinour. 2014. "Teenagers' Experiences of Pregnancy and the Parents' and Partners' Reactions: A Malaysian Perspective." Journal of Family Violence 29 (4):465-72.

doi: 10.1007/s10896-014-9595-4.


This study focuses on the experiences of unwed teenage mothers in Malaysia in respect to the reactions of their parents and the fathers of their babies and how the reactions from significant others influence these unwed teenage mothers. The investigation was based on content analysis of interviews with 17 unwed teenage mothers, aged 12 to 18 years, during their probation or placement in shelter houses. The results show that most unwed teenage mothers became pregnant as a result of rape or statutory rape, and thus were at risk of developing mental health problems. Three themes were developed: secrecy, repression, and rejection. Four additional themes-feeling detached, trapped, unworthy, and ambiguous-were developed to describe the teenagers' experiences of pregnancy. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Siddiqi, Farhan Hanif. 2014. "Pakistan and Singapore as small powers: Comparative thematic evaluation and policy imperatives." African and Asian Studies 13 (1-2):187-204.

doi: 10.1163/15692108-12341291.


The subject of international relations and its theories are based primarily on what the great powers do. Major IR theories including realism and neorealism have put small states and powers at the very margins of their respective theories arguing that since they do not display any form of power at the national and systemic levels they could as easily be discarded from theoretical and empirical debate and analysis. The present article challenges this theoretical construct and seeks to investigate whether the small powers are innate non-players in the international system and hence 'vulnerable' entities or display forms of power vis-à-vis the great powers in which their 'maneuverability', influence and independence may be manifest. This is attempted with respect to a comparative analysis of Pakistan and Singapore in which both an endogenously driven explanation taking into account both states' domestic constitutive features are brought into focus alongside a behaviorally-oriented exogenous explanation bordering on power and security. © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Stegmiller, Ignaz. 2014. "Legal developments in civil party participation at the extraordinary chambers in the courts of Cambodia." Leiden Journal of International Law 27 (2):465-77.

doi: 10.1017/S0922156514000028.


For the first time in the history of international criminal justice, victims of mass crimes have been granted the status of so-called 'civil parties' at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC). This status grants them-at least theoretically-the right to participate in the proceedings as a formal party with broad participatory rights similar to the those of the defence and the prosecution. While the ECCC is exemplary in how it has addressed the issue of victims' participation, practical necessities and judicial skepticism have led to significant changes in the civil party mechanism and continuously constrained participatory rights. First, changes in the ECCC's Internal Rules have significantly altered the original civil party mechanism and led to a form of victim participation similar to the one practised at the International Criminal Court (ICC), thus departing from the true meaning of a partie civile. Judicial decisions by the ECCC's judges, as well as changes in the Internal Rules, have abrogated the strong civil party mechanism that was originally anticipated in Cambodian criminal procedure law. Second, the practical challenges surrounding victim participation have been enormous. The Court itself was struggling due to lack of funding and lack of prioritization of a meaningful outreach program for victims and civil parties. The ECCC's Public Affairs Section (PAS) and the Victims Support Section (VSS) held the responsibility of reaching out to the general Cambodian population. However, it was Cambodian NGOs that ultimately established a collaborative outreach system and collected more than 8,000 Victim Information Forms (VIFs). All these efforts notwithstanding, only political willingness and a Cambodian discussion of how to deal with the vast number of perpetrators beyond a handful of criminal trials, can lead to a process of coming to terms with one's past. © 2014 Foundation of the Leiden Journal of International Law.

Sundaram, Jomo Kwame. 2014. "'Malaysia incorporated': Corporatism a la mahathir." Institutions and Economies 6 (1):73-94.



Mahathir's "Malaysia Incorporated" policy is reviewed here against how the Malaysian state evolved before the mid-1980s recession, including the first half decade of Mahathir's premiership. After a decade and a half of growing regulation and public sector expansion, ostensibly to restructure society by strengthening the Malay business and middle classes and in pursuit of Mahathir's heavy industrialisation project, the policy sought to reverse earlier excesses through some economic and cultural liberalisation following the 1985-1986 recession. This was followed by rapid growth from the late 1980s until the 1997-1998 Asian crisis. While business organisations have had limited, if not declining influence, some individual businessmen have become increasingly politically influential in securing state intervention to advance their particular interests. Mahathir's corporatism - implied by the "Malaysia Incorporated" slogan - was largely limited to promoting company-level corporatism through in-house unions and better government-business relations. Instead of mobilising and incorporating organised labour - besides the short-lived Malaysian Labour Organization - in his corporatist project, there was little effort to improve industrial relations, suggesting that his corporatist project was largely limited to bridging the ethnic divide, rather than other social divisions.

Teo, Yen Hua. 2014. "Water services industry reforms in Malaysia." International Journal of Water Resources Development 30 (1):37-46.

doi: 10.1080/07900627.2013.846719.


Concerted efforts to reform and transform the water industry in Malaysia began in 2006. It was a visionary effort by the federal government to ensure an adequate supply of clean water to the public and industry. A policy and institutional framework was created to re-invent and transform the water services industry into an efficient and sustainable sector that will play a pivotal role as one of the major components of economic growth. Though minor adjustments may be needed during its implementation, the overall policy direction is pragmatic and viable and has started to produce tangible outcomes. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Thompson, Eric C. . 2014. "Immigration, society and modalities of citizenship in Singapore." Citizenship Studies 18 (3-4):315-31.

doi: 10.1080/13621025.2014.905272.


In this article, I argue that three modalities of citizenship are at play in Singapore: liberal, communal and social. Using a grounded theoretical approach, I highlight the instances in which these modes of conceptualizing citizenship appear in discourse, practice and policy. While past scholarship has highlighted the contrast between liberal and communal modes of citizenship, the social mode has been largely subsumed and obscured within the rubric of communal (or communitarian) democracy and ethno-nationalist citizenship. The article analyzes the interplay among these three modes of citizenship as they played out in the discourse surrounding the 2011 General Election in Singapore. The tension between citizens and noncitizens has become a central political issue in Singapore. Less recognized, but highlighted in my analysis, liberal and communal senses of citizenship are in tension not only with each other but also with a notion of the social based on relationships of mutual benefit and obligation rather than communal, categorical belonging. Drawing on Robert Esposito's critique of modern ideas of community and (re)theorization of communitas, I argue that in the case of Singapore and elsewhere, reintroducing a notion of the social (as distinct from the communal) holds potential for discourses, practices and policies that can transcend the divisiveness associated with communalism and the socioeconomic inequalities associated with liberalism. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Tin, Poo Bee. 2014. "A decomposition analysis for labour demand: Evidence from Malaysian manufacturing sector." WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics 11 (1):32-41.



Malaysia experienced four major phases of industrialization, with import substitution or export orientation dominating each phases alternatively. Manufacturing sector is important in Malaysia's industrial development, inducing rapid growth, technology expansion and upgrading labor skill. High growth rates and high technology expansion in these sector resulted in a substantial increase in demand for labor. Indeed, currently the economy is continuously experiencing further structural adjustments in output and employment as the degree of integration with world markets increases and changes in technology deepen. By using three Malaysian input-output tables; 1978, 1991 and 2000 input-output tables - the present study employs the popular model namely the Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA). The result also shows that changes in the final demand structure were the major source of labor growth, dominating by domestic demand during 1978-1991 and by export demand during 1991- 2000.

Triastuti, Endah. 2014. "Indonesian women’s blog formats from Tanah Betawi to Serambi Mekah: Women blogger’s choices of technical features." International Communication Gazette 76 (4-5):407-24.

doi: 10.1177/1748048514524111.


Drawing on the critiques of the active/passive dichotomy and using an ethnographic approach, this article looks at the forms of Indonesian women’s engagement in a convergent media world through blogging. We examine the technical, personalized authoring tools Indonesian women use in their blogging practices, and conclude that potential choices are not limitless as they hinge on authors’ contexts.

Tzuo, Pei-Wen, Jyh-Chong Liang, and Chien-Hui Yang. 2014. "Knowledge Domains in Globalization and Their Influence on Teaching in Early Childhood Education and Care." Asia-Pacific Education Researcher 23 (2):213-24.

doi: 10.1007/s40299-013-0098-5.


Drawing upon various scholars' conceptual work on the knowledge domains that underpin teaching in the era of globalization, this paper examines the aspects of teaching they have affected and the extent of their influence. This article reports the results from a mixed-methods study with 138 preschool teacher participants in Singapore. The findings first uncover that pedagogical knowledge influences teaching practices most, whereas global trends least influence teaching practices. Second, sociological knowledge was developed on top of pedagogical knowledge by practicing and adapting it. Third, personal knowledge significantly influences practices of responding to children's needs. We discuss these findings in detail and suggest ways to utilize the various knowledge types optimally to support teaching in the age of globalization. © 2013 De La Salle University.

Vanichchinchai, Assadej 2014. "Supply chain management, supply performance and total quality management: An organizational characteristic analysis." International Journal of Organizational Analysis 22 (2):126-48.

doi: 10.1108/IJOA-08-2011-0500.


Purpose: This study aims to assess the level of supply chain management practices (SCMP), total quality management practices (TQMP) and firm's supply performance (FSP) in the automotive industry in Thailand and investigate the differences across organizational characteristics on SCMP, TQMP and FSP. Design/methodology/approach: Based on an extensive literature review, the measurement instruments for SCMP, TQMP and FSP were developed and validated by experts, pilot test and various statistical techniques. Descriptive statistics were employed to examine the existences of SCMP, TQMP and FSP in the sample companies. MANOVA was applied to test the differences across company ownership, company size, tier in the supply chain and ISO/TS 16949 on SCMP, TQMP and FSP. Findings: The author found that the measurements of SCMP, TQMP and FSP are reliable and valid. The automotive companies in Thailand apply TQMP much more extensively than SCMP. Their SCMP still emphasize efficient flows of information and materials at operational level to minimize transaction cost. Overall, Japanese companies, large companies, first-tier suppliers and the companies with ISO/TS 16949 have more intensively applied SCMP and TQMP and achieved a higher level of FSP. Research limitations/implications: The distribution of paper-based questionnaires was a convenience sample. Although data from a sample of 211 companies were collected, only 19 percent of them provided more than one response. Future research should apply different random sampling methods and investigate the reasons for and ways to improve the low multiple-response rate. Practical implications: The findings are beneficial to the managers who want to improve SCMP, TQMP and FSP through organization management. Originality/value: This study is one of the first to assess the existence of SCMP and FSP and to study the differences across organizational characteristics on SCMP and FSP in the automotive industry in developing countries. The existence and differences across organizational characteristics on TQMP were also confirmed. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Wang, Cangbai 2014. "How does a house remember? Heritage-ising return migration in an Indonesian-Chinese house museum in Guangdong, PRC." International Journal of Heritage Studies 20 (4):454-74.

doi: 10.1080/13527258.2013.771791.


This paper is an attempt to integrate heritage and museum studies through exploring the complex relationship between the materiality of architecture and social memories with a house museum of return migration in Guangdong, PRC as a case study. It unveils that the ongoing process of memory is intrinsically intertwined with spatial and temporal dimensions of the physical dwelling and built environment and the wider social-historical context and power relations shaping them. I argue that it is the house as object of exhibit just as much as the exhibits inside the house that materialises the turbulent and traumatic migratory experience of Returned Overseas Chinese, embodies their memories and exposes the contested nature of museumification. By looking at the socially and geographically marginalised dwelling of return migrants, the house draws peoples attention to the often neglected importance of conceptual periphery in re-theorising what is often assumed to be the core of heritage value. It points to the necessity to integrate displaced, diasporic, transnational subjects to heritage and museum studies that have been traditionally framed within national and territorial boundaries. © 2013 Taylor and Francis.

Wertheim-Heck, Sigrid C.O., Gert Spaargaren, and Sietze Vellema. 2014. "Food safety in everyday life: Shopping for vegetables in a rural city in Vietnam." Journal of Rural Studies 35:37-48.

doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2014.04.002.


Concerns about food safety influence the way in which Vietnamese consumers confront the question of where, how and from whom they buy their fresh vegetables. In this paper we analyze in what manner and to what extent existing shopping practices inhibit the adoption of modern retail based food safety strategies. Using a social practices theory based approach, we analyze in detail the sales practices of sellers and the purchasing practices of consumers in a Vietnamese provincial city. This study reveals how both sellers and buyers in wet-markets, Asian style fresh food markets, apply different sets of skills and knowledge, based on locality, personal contacts and private judgment, to match supply and demand in the context of food safety threats. Within the everyday practice of shopping for vegetables, trust is shown to be continuously reproduced along pre-given lines. Consumers do not easily look outside or move beyond their existing routines even when food safety concerns would urge them to do so. From these findings we conclude that in situations where wet-markets serve as the dominant channel for distributing and purchasing fresh food, the efficacy of government and retail induced food safety strategies depends on their articulation within existing food purchasing routines of Vietnamese consumers. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Wong, Pak Nung, and Wai Kay Ricky Yue. 2014. "U.S.-China containment and counter-containment in southeast Asia: The "battle" for Myanmar (Burma)." African and Asian Studies 13 (1-2):33-58.

doi: 10.1163/15692108-12341284.


In 2011, the United States of America (U.S.) adopted the "pivot to Asia" (also known as "return to Asia") foreign policy. In order to provide a critique of this apparent policy change, this paper has two aims. First, we will contextualize such policy agenda against the Anglo-American strategic culture of "containment" as a strand of geopolitical realism and a foreign policy practice against communism. Second, by providing a case study on the changing relations between the Union of Myanmar (Burma), the People's Republic of China and the United States of America, we will characterize U.S. containment and China's counter-containment strategies through the lens of Suntzu's Art of War. © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Yamauchi, Futoshi. 2014. "An alternative estimate of school-based management impacts on students' achievements: Evidence from the Philippines." Journal of Development Effectiveness 6 (2):97-110.

doi: 10.1080/19439342.2014.906485.


This paper aims to estimate the impact of school-based management (SBM) on students' test scores in the Philippines. Estimation results using double differencing (DD) combined with propensity score matching show that SBM increased the average national achievement test score by 4.2 points over three years. The increase in mathematics was 5.7 points. The triple differencing procedure using the pre-intervention period as the baseline provides even larger impact estimates: 8.6 and 11.4 points for average and mathematics scores, respectively. These impacts are larger than the estimate previously reported from the Philippines, probably due to the fact that the sample schools had learned about SBM implementation from experiences accumulated in other provinces that introduced SBM earlier. The empirical results also show that schools with experienced principals and teachers are eager to introduce SBM. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


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