Mar 1, 2014

Academic Articles published during 18th~28 Feb 2014

Here is the list of academic articles published in last two weeks articles:


Marston, Hunter. 2013. "Myanmar's Electoral System: Reviewing the 2010 and 2012 Elections and Looking Ahead to the 2015 General Elections." Asian Journal of Political Science no. 21 (3):268-284.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02185377.2013.864515

Abstract
Myanmar's 2010 multi-party election was the nation's first in two decades, signaling a manufactured transition from nearly half a century of military dictatorship toward parliamentary democracy. The current single-member district, plurality voting electoral system limits the parliamentary representation of smaller, ethnic political parties, and inflates the influence of larger, enfranchised parties, jeopardizing peaceful national reconciliation between various factions and the country's inchoate democratic institutions. Myanmar's Union Electoral Commission should consider electoral reforms that: (a) maximize proportional representation; (b) guarantee peace and political stability; and (c) guarantee a sufficient parliamentary majority that can govern the nascent democracy. The ideal system for the upcoming 2015 general elections is a Mixed-Member Proportional (MMP) one, with one parliamentary house electing ministers by plurality in regional districts and the other with proportional representation by party list. This paper considers alternative electoral systems in light of the status quo and argues that MMP would produce the most stable and representative results for all parties concerned.

Ishii, Risako, Piyawadee Rohitarachoon, and Farhad Hossain. 2013. "HRM Reform in Decentralised Local Government: Empirical Perspectives on Recruitment and Selection in the Philippines and Thailand." Asian Journal of Political Science no. 21 (3):249-267.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02185377.2013.864514
Abstract
Over the recent decades decentralisation has been an influential process for public sector reform. Like many countries in Southeast Asia, the Philippines and Thailand have experienced a transitional period of decentralisation since the 1990s, but its corresponding results are considered to be poor, allowing for an increase in corruption associated with local elites and other interested parties. This article addresses the problem by focusing on Human Resource Management (HRM), with an emphasis on recruitment and selection in decentralised local governments, as there exists limited research in this area. Despite similar outlook of decentralisation reforms in these countries, the comparative analysis will illustrate differences in HRM policy arrangements between the central and local government, which reflect on the roots and backgrounds of the reform initiatives in each country. Moreover, empirical case observations at the local level from four case cities will present positive HRM practices, as well as the negative ones. Such evidence cannot be explained by contemporary theories on decentralisation, most of which doubt feasibility of the reform in developing countries.


Than, Tin Maung Maung. 2014. "Myanmar in 2013: At the Halfway Mark." Asian Survey no. 54 (1):22-29. doi: 10.1525/as.2014.54.1.22.

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2014.54.1.22

Abstract: The year 2013 in Myanmar saw parliaments disagreeing with the executive. A joint parliamentary committee to review and amend the Constitution was formed. Western sanctions were virtually withdrawn. A resurgence of communal violence, the emergence of Buddhist nationalism, and public protest over mega-projects, land rights, wage disputes, and freedom to demonstrate were worrisome developments. A nationwide ceasefire agreement remained elusive.

Malesky, Edmund. 2014. "Vietnam in 2013: Single-Party Politics in the Internet Age." Asian Survey no. 54 (1):30-38. doi: 10.1525/as.2014.54.1.30.

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2014.54.1.30

Abstract: This essay reviews Vietnamese politics in 2013 through the lens of the constitutional drafting process and the unprecedented confidence vote in the National Assembly. Both events were framed by the country’s ongoing economic struggles, elite political contestation, international integration, and a more informed public, fueled by an increasingly active blogosphere. The events foreshadow how future Vietnamese leaders can no longer rely on deep reservoirs of patriotism for legitimacy. Performance matters now more than ever.

Ockey, James. 2014. "Thailand in 2013: The Politics of Reconciliation." Asian Survey no. 54 (1):39-46. doi: 10.1525/as.2014.54.1.39.

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2014.54.1.39

Abstract: The Thai government in 2013 faced numerous challenges: a gradual decline in popularity, continuing insurgency in the South, problems with the economy and economic strategy, and difficult relations with the military. These challenging issues on the agenda led to widespread demonstrations and intractable conflict by the end of the year.

Gunn, Geoffrey C. 2014. "Indonesia in 2013: Oligarchs, Political Tribes, and Populists." Asian Survey no. 54 (1):47-55. doi: 10.1525/as.2014.54.1.47.

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2014.54.1.47

Abstract: Ahead of upcoming elections, expectations ran high in 2013 across the archipelago for a highly pluralistic electorate. With China as a leading trading partner, the backdrop for Indonesia was steady economic growth, albeit checked by a sliding currency, a current account deficit, and a depressing culture of corruption. Mixing commerce and geopolitics, China, the U.S., and Japan all turned to Indonesia to expand their influence.

Case, William. 2014. "Malaysia in 2013: A Benighted Election Day (and Other Events)." Asian Survey no. 54 (1):56-63. doi: 10.1525/as.2014.54.1.56.

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2014.54.1.56

Abstract: The most important event to take place in Malaysia during 2013 was its general election. The incumbent National Front government was returned to power, though with less than a majority of the popular vote. The government then rewarded Malay supporters with new affirmative action programs. It also repulsed an armed incursion into Sabah launched from the southern Philippines.

Sidel, John T. 2014. "The Philippines in 2013: Disappointment, Disgrace, Disaster." Asian Survey no. 54 (1):64-70. doi: 10.1525/as.2014.54.1.64.

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2014.54.1.64

Abstract: The year 2013 in the Philippines saw President Aquino’s administration buoyed by mid-term election results in May but otherwise mired in scandal, episodes of violence in Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago, escalating tensions with China, and difficulties responding to the massive typhoon that hit the Eastern Visayas in early November.

McCargo, Duncan. 2014. "Cambodia in 2013: (No) Country for Old Men?" Asian Survey no. 54 (1):71-77. doi: 10.1525/as.2014.54.1.71.

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2014.54.1.71

Abstract: Cambodia in 2013 was dominated by close-fought national elections on July 28, only narrowly won by the ruling Cambodian People’s Party after an unexpectedly strong showing by the opposition. Generational change was a major theme of the year, seen in the growing activism of youth and the deaths of several prominent figures.

Howe, Brendan M. 2014. "Laos in 2013: Macroeconomic Ambitions, Human-centered Shortcomings." Asian Survey no. 54 (1):78-82. doi: 10.1525/as.2014.54.1.78.

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2014.54.1.78

Abstract: In 2013 Laos joined the World Trade Organization, economic growth was over 8%, and graduation from least-developed country status by 2020 remains achievable. But its human development index of 0.543 remained below the regional average. Macro development projects still threaten the vulnerable. The abduction of a prominent campaigner and repatriation of North Korean refugees highlighted human rights challenges.

Feijó, Rui Graça. 2014. "Timor-Leste in 2013: Marching on Its Own Feet." Asian Survey no. 54 (1):83-88. doi: 10.1525/as.2014.54.1.83.

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2014.54.1.83

Abstract: In early 2013, Timor-Leste started to walk solely on its own feet, after the departure of the United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste and the International Stabilization Force. The year has proved to be broadly peaceful, signifying that the country has learned to live within its own resources. The level of political consensus has increased, as Timor-Leste engages in a process of generational turnover.


Arifianto, Alexander R. 2014. "Is Indonesia Experiencing a “Democratic Rollback”?" ISEAS Perspective no. 2014 (11).http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/ISEAS_Perspective_2014_11-Is_Indonesia_Experiencing_a_Democractic_Rollback.pdf
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
- The international civil society organization Freedom House recently downgraded its rating of Indonesia’s democracy from “Free” (a distinction Indonesia has retained since 2006) to “Partly Free”.
- The downgrade is due to the adoption of a new Civil Society Organization (CSO) law similar to the one enacted by the Suharto regime for cracking down on any organization it considered a threat to its rule.
- The CSO law is just one of several legislative proposals initiated in the Indonesian parliament (DPR) to roll back some of the democratic reforms Indonesia had enacted since the fall of Suharto in 1998.
- There is fear that these legislative measures will weaken Indonesia’s development towards effective democracy.

 

Wilson, Ian. 2014. "Resisting Democracy: Front Pembela Islam and Indonesia’s 2014 Elections." ISEAS Perspective no. 2014 (10).http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/ISEAS_Perspective_2014_10-Resisting_Democracy.pdf
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
- This year, 2014, is election year in Indonesia. There are however vigilantes such as Front Pembela Islam (FPI; Defenders of Islam Front) who reject secular democracy and instead advocate a return to what they argue are the Islamic foundations of the Indonesian constitution and state ideology.
- But despite declaring democracy haram (sinful), the FPI and other such groups have proven themselves adept at manipulating the dynamics of Indonesia’s decentralised electoral system to their advantage, obtaining key policy concessions and positioning themselves as brokers for political elites seeking to capture the conservative Muslim vote.
- These have found ideological bedfellows amongst New Order apologists seeking to roll back democratic reforms. Calls for ‘democratic downgrad- ing’ from political parties such as Partai Demokrat, considered alongside the authoritarian credentials of a number of frontrunner presidential candi- dates suggest that Indonesia’s democratic future is by no means secure.
- In the run-up to the elections for the presidency and national legislature in 2014, a number of political parties have shown interest in forming alliances with the FPI. The key exception has been the PDI-P and its likely presidential candidate, the governor of Jakarta Joko Widodo.

Hong, Zhao. 2014. "Can a Captive Southeast Asia Ease China-Japan Tensions?" ISEAS Perspective no. 2014 (9).http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/ISEAS_Perspective_2014_09-Can_a_Captive_Southeast_Asia_Ease_China-Japan_Tensions.pdf
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
- China’s influence in the ASEAN countries, in particular on economic integration, has been argued to have surpassed that of Japan. Determined to change this trend, Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is attempting to transform the mainly economy-oriented Japan-ASEAN relationship into a multifaceted one that entails mutual cooperation with security and strategic elements.
- China and Japan are major trading partners of ASEAN and important players in nearly all ASEAN-led regional schemes that affect investment and trade. However, both countries have different interests and strategic considerations in developing economic relations with ASEAN, and the region has become a key battleground in Sino-Japan rivalry. This has placed ASEAN in a difficult position.
- ASEAN’s approach of neutrality in conflict resolution may just be the key needed to alleviate mistrust between China and Japan. Institutionalized cooperation in Southeast Asia is essential for mitigating antagonistic competition and increasing mutual trust between the two Northeast Asian powers.

Hongwei, Fan. 2014. "Enmity in Myanmar against China." ISEAS Perspective no. 2014 (8).http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/ISEAS_Perspective_2014_08-EnmityinMyanmaragainstChina.pdf
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
- Although Sino-Myanmar relations are generally portrayed as pauk phaw or fraternal, anti-China sentiments in Myanmar have been growing since 1988. The image of China and Chinese enterprises suffered significantly following the events that led to the suspension of the Myitsone Dam project.
- China’s non-interference approach to diplomacy has been a major contributing factor towards the negativity. Beijing’s political and economic support to the former Myanmar military regime also generated resentment amongst the general public.
- Chinese projects in Myanmar, primarily in the natural resources and energy sectors, have failed to bring substantial benefits to the people, and locals feel that economic relations between the two countries are un- equal, with Beijing plundering their natural resources while disregarding their interests.
- China’s reputation was further tainted by the misfeasance of some Chinese enterprises and businessmen in Myanmar, as well as the influx of low-quality and counterfeit products.


Gruber, Jonathan, Nathaniel Hendren, and Robert M. Townsend. "The Great Equalizer: Health Care Access and Infant Mortality in Thailand." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 6, no. 1 (2014): 91-107.
DOI: 10.1257/app.6.1.91
Abstract
This paper analyzes Thailand's 2001 healthcare reform, "30 Baht." The program increased funding available to hospitals to care for the poor and reduced copays to 30 Baht (~$0.75). Our estimates suggest the supply-side funding of the program increased healthcare utilization, especially among the poor. Moreover, we find significant impacts on infant mortality. Prior to 30 Baht, poorer provinces had significantly higher infant mortality rates than richer provinces. After 30 Baht, this correlation evaporates to zero. The results suggest that increased access to healthcare among the poor can significantly reduce their infant mortality rates.
Leshkowich, Ann. "Standardized forms of Vietnamese selfhood: An ethnographic genealogy of documentation." American Ethnologist 41, no. 1 (2014): 143-162.
DOI: 10.1111/amet.12065
Abstract
Three standardized forms used to write the self in Vietnam structure ways of thinking about the relationship between the individual, family, and state; legitimize technical expertise and tools of self-improvement; and promote specific configurations of political economy. Two of the forms (the lý li{dot below}ch autobiographical statement and the "Cultured Family" self-assessment checklist) are closely associated with socialist practices. The third (social work case file) is best classified as neoliberal. Tracing the genealogy of these forms and their ethnographic contexts reveals, however, underlying continuities in logics of individual assessment and faith in the application of technical expertise to achieve desired development outcomes. It also demonstrates that the ostensibly more coercive socialist technologies of documentation have provided narrative frameworks that enable individuals to represent themselves in other contexts, whereas the social work case file that aims to empower individuals may ultimately render them passive subjects of transnational expertise. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.
Takahashi, Kazushi, and Christopher B. Barrett. "The System of Rice Intensification and its Impacts on Household Income and Child Schooling: Evidence from Rural Indonesia." American Journal of Agricultural Economics 96, no. 1 (2014): 269-289.
DOI: 10.1093/ajae/aat086
Abstract
The yield potential of a set of improved rice management practices, known as the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), has attracted much attention. Yet we know surprisingly little about SRI's socio-economic impact. Using data from Indonesia in 2009, this study assesses the impact of SRI on household incomes and child schooling. We find that SRI generates significant estimated yield gains. However, because SRI induces a reallocation of family labor from non-farm to farm, SRI users enjoy no household income gains. Despite the increased labor demand for farming, we find no evidence that SRI has a child labor effect. © 2013 The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. All rights reserved.
Kusumawati, Rini, and Leontine E. Visser. 2014. "Collaboration or Contention? Decentralised Marine Governance in Berau." Anthropological Forum no. 24 (1):21-46.
DOI: 10.1080/00664677.2014.868783
Abstract
Conservation of marine space is a new frontier in environmentalists' involvement with resource governance in Indonesia. The coastal and marine area of Berau was established as a District Marine Conservation Area (MCA) based on District Head Regulation No. 31/2005. The total MCA of 1.27 million ha was expected to become part of the wider MCA networks of the East Borneo Seascape and the Sulu Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion, as well as of the Coral Triangle international network of conservation areas in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. The Berau MCA was developed in collaboration between the Berau district government and international environmental non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). They claimed to use a new concept of partnership with the decentralised district government as the principal institutional partner. However, the governance framework is full of legal disconnects due to decentralisation of resource management, and its implementation faces the real-life challenges of political-economic and historical valuations of the marine environment producing conflicts of interest between the multi-scalar actors involved. Following the very process of establishing the Berau MCA over a five-year period (2005-2010), this paper shows why it is necessary to understand how collaboration and contention are constructed and in turn construct actors' perceptions and perspectives on marine conservation and resource extraction in decentralised coastal governance. © 2014 Discipline of Anthropology and Sociology, The University of Western Australia.
Lin, Pin-te, and Franz Fuerst. 2014. "The integration of direct real estate and stock markets in Asia." Applied Economics no. 46 (12):1323-1334
DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2013.872763
Abstract
Currently, there exists relatively little research investigating the long-term association between stock and direct real estate markets. Using appropriate transaction-based property indices, this study focuses on the relationship between stock and direct real estate markets in nine Asian countries from the period 1980 to 2012 through both linear and nonlinear cointegration techniques. We find empirical evidence of linear cointegration of stock and property markets in Taiwan, fractional cointegration in Singapore and Hong Kong and no evidence of cointegration in China, Japan, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and South Korea. It is concluded that segmentation of property markets from stock markets does not appear to be linked to the differences in the maturity of national financial markets and that the differing degrees of integration across Asia may instead be reflective of a range of factors impacting upon the underlying economic structures in each country. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Sinh, Le Xuan, Hap Navy, and Robert S. Pomeroy. 2014. "Value chain of snakehead fish in the lower Mekong basin of Cambodia and Vietnam." Aquaculture Economics & Management no. 18 (1):76-96
DOI: 10.1080/13657305.2014.855956
Abstract
Snakehead fish are the most preferred fish species for food in Cambodia and Vietnam, and are consumed in both fresh and processed forms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the value chains of captured and cultured snakeheads in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB). The important actors involved in the value chain of snakeheads in the LMB of Cambodia and Vietnam were fishers, fish farmers, wholesalers, retailers, and processors. The value chain of wild captured snakeheads in Cambodia was focused on 11 marketing channels, and for cultured snakeheads in Vietnam, 10 market channels. The distribution of benefits among the chain actors was unequal, with the highest proportion of profit going to wholesalers in Cambodia and collectors in Vietnam. In order to develop the value chain of snakehead for the long-term in the LMB, appropriate plans must be prepared for each country in association with better management and protection of natural aquatic resources. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Grant, Catherine. "Perspectives of Culture-Bearers on the Vitality, Viability and Value of Traditional Khmer Music Genres in Contemporary Cambodia." The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 15, no. 1 (2014): 26-46.
DOI: 10.1080/14442213.2013.866685
Abstract
Previous studies have explored the historical and social context for the endangerment and subsequent revitalisation of Cambodian performing arts, but little work has focused on music, or the views of culture-bearers themselves on these issues. By thematically analysing qualitative data from semi-structured interviews conducted in early 2013, this research explores the perspectives and motivations of a group of master-musicians, teachers and performers who are making efforts to sustain and revive their music traditions. Participants emphasised five factors that they believed significantly interplayed with the vitality of traditional Khmer music genres. Four of these were generally perceived to have an overall adverse effect on vitality: 'outside' influence; loss of interest and knowledge among younger people; low market demand for performances and teaching; and perpetuation of limiting constructs and belief systems. Only one factor identified was perceived to have a beneficial effect on vitality: the strength of infrastructure for learning and teaching. Somewhat surprisingly, then, opinions about the viability of traditional genres were on aggregate highly optimistic, though with some concern expressed about the impact of government action (and inaction) on this issue. Justifications given for sustaining and revitalising traditional Khmer genres included the role of these traditions in education and ritual, Cambodian national identity and musicians' livelihoods. The study confirms the perceived value, among one group of culture-bearers, of revitalising Khmer music traditions. © 2014 The Australian National University.
Ferguson, Jane M. "Terminally Haunted: Aviation Ghosts, Hybrid Buddhist Practices, and Disaster Aversion Strategies Amongst Airport Workers in Myanmar and Thailand." The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 15, no. 1 (2014): 47-64.
DOI: 10.1080/14442213.2013.872698
Abstract
Much of what is written about airports is from the perspective of a visionary architect, or from the experience of the cosmopolitan traveller. Airport workers, aside from their intimate knowledge of the airport space, know something about terminals that their designers and itinerant occupants do not: how they are haunted. In Yangon, Myanmar and Bangkok, Thailand, airport workers exchange occupational ghost lore regarding sightings, motives and histories of spirits within aviation. They also make use of hybrid Buddhist practices to ward off danger from airport spaces, and to make their own future travels safe and propitious. In addition to challenging the notion of the airport as the 'non-place', this paper demonstrates that ecumenical practices and hauntings crucially frame techno-modernity, uniting local and transregional culture with the global semantic legibility of the logistic superstructure of passenger aviation. © 2014 The Australian National University.
Meng, Xianming. 2012. "Is a Tourism Subsidy the Best Response to the Global Financial Crisis? A Short-run CGE Simulation for Singapore." Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research no. 19 (3):325-341
DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2012.742916
Abstract
The Global Financial Crisis in 2008 is believed to have had tremendous negative effects on tourism. To gauge this impact, this study employs recent Singaporean tourism survey data, the updated Singaporean input-output tables, and a computable general equilibrium model to analyse Singaporean tourism and the economy. The simulation results suggest that, the core tourism sectors such as accommodation and drink & tobacco are severely affected while other tourism sectors are also significantly affected. It is also shown that, contrary to previous research, the goods and services tax deduction policy is more effective than a tourism subsidy policy. However, if a subsidy policy is to be used by the Singapore government, the tourism-focused subsidy policy is much more effective than the economy-wide industrial subsidy in terms of both tourism and the whole economy. © 2012 © 2012 Asia Pacific Tourism Association.
Smithikrai, Chuchai. (2014), Relationship of cultural values to counterproductive work behaviour: The mediating role of job stress. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 17: 36–43
DOI: 10.1111/ajsp.12040
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to investigate how cultural values are related to counterproductive work behaviour (CWB), and to examine whether individuals' job stress acts as a mediator between cultural types and CWB. Using an anonymous questionnaire survey, the sample was comprised of 440 employees working in government institutes and private sectors in Thailand. The results show that job stress not only has a direct relationship to CWB, but also partially mediates the relationship between cultural values and CWB. The strong mediating links were between horizontal collectivism and CWB and between vertical individualism and CWB. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd with the Asian Association of Social Psychology and the Japanese Group Dynamics Association.
Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir, Halimah Kamis, Salwa Mahalle, and Aliff Nawi. "Leadership Style of Religious School Headmasters and Its Relationship to Academic Achievement in Brunei Darussalam." Asian Social Science 10, no. 3 (2014): p112.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n3p112
Abstract
This research was conducted at 15 religious schools in Tutong District. The objectives of this research are to identify leadearship style and its relationship to academic achievement. The "Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire" (LBDQ) formed by Halpin (1966) was used. Meanwhile Academic achievement was measured using the "School Certificate Examination Results, Religious Primary School" (SSSRU) from 2008-2011. A total of 191 teachers and 15 headmasters from religious school in Tutong District were randomly chosen. Pearson correlation was used to analyse the data. To support data obtained from questionnaire given 10 teachers were interviewed. The results showed that most of the school leaders adopt a democratic style of leadership. There was a significant correlation between the structure of task-oriented leadership style and students' performance in the examinations. Correlation analysis also showed that headmasters practice task- oriented structure and consideration-oriented structure in relation to their work responsiblities. Furthermore, findings also showed that majority of the headmasters are more likely to practice consideration-oriented leadership style compared to structure-oriented leadership style.
Zakaria, Maheran. "The Influence of Human Needs in the Perspective of Maqasid al-Syari’ah on Zakat Distribution Effectiveness." Asian Social Science 10, no. 3 (2014): p165.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n3p165
Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of human needs in the perspective of Maqasid al-Syari'ah namely religion, physical-self, knowledge, family and wealth on zakat (almsgiving) distribution effectiveness. Approximately 350 sets of questionnaire were personally sent to zakat recipients of two programs conducted by Majlis Agama Islam Kelantan (MAIK) namely business assistance and living skill course in Malaysia. From this amount, 320 people responded, amounting to 91.43% response rate. Data were analysed using Structural Equation Modeling of AMOSS (Analysis of Moment structure) version 20. From the findings, it is concluded that all human needs in the perspective of Maqasid al-Syari'ah namely religion, knowledge, physical-self, family and wealth positively influence zakat distribution effectiveness. Hence, the study provides an insight to zakat institutions, policy makers and the public that the effectiveness of zakat distribution could not only be judged in terms of monetary value but also to other non-monetary values that include religion, physical life, knowledge, family and wealth.
Yamat, Hamidah, Ross Fisher, and Sarah Rich. "Revisiting English Language Learning among Malaysian Children." Asian Social Science 10, no. 3 (2014): p174.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n3p174
Abstract
Despite learning English language for six years at elementary and five years at secondary levels, Malaysian students' English language competency has always been the obstacle in securing success at university level as well as in job opportunities. Hence, various interventions have been taken in the teaching and learning process as well as changes in language policy. This paper calls for a revisit on Malaysia's policy on teaching English English at primary schools. It discusses the findings of English language acquisition as experienced by Azlan, Hazwan and Aida's (pseudonyms), aged six, and explored through an ethnographic case study. The children's, their mother's and teacher's voices were gathered through interviews. The children's behaviours in and outside of school and at home were also captured through observations. A grounded theory data analysis approach was employed in analysing the data. Findings illuminated that for these children, the second language was acquired through play and use; and that developing children's confidence should be the starting point. The implication of this finding is discussed in the light of the English language policy for teaching English to Malaysian primary school children.
Nair, Gopala Krishnan Sekharan, Roszainora Setia, Nor Zaitolakma Abdul Samad, Raja Nurul Huda Binti Raja Zahri, Azyanee Luqman, Thenmolli Vadeveloo, and Haslina Che Ngah. "Teachers’ Knowledge and Issues in the Implementation of School-Based Assessment: A Case of Schools in Terengganu." Asian Social Science 10, no. 3 (2014): p186.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n3p186
Abstract
In tandem with educational best practices the world over, School-based assessments (SBAs) were introduced in Malaysia in 2012 for secondary one students. This study investigated quantitatively and qualitatively matters such as the teachers' knowledge of SBAs and the issues faced when implementing SBAs. Whereas the factors contributing to the problems of SBA implementation was investigated only qualitatively. A sample of 60 English teachers in the district of Dungun, Terengganu, who were involved in SBAs from the beginning was used, out of this, 20 teachers were interviewed to obtain qualitative findings. It was found that teachers had satisfactory knowledge of planning an SBA tailored lesson. They also showed satisfactory knowledge of developing SBAs but appeared to have difficulty in the psychometrics of test analysis. As for issues faced by teachers, they were not indifferent to SBA implementation but team work and collaboration among SBA teachers needs to be improved. Teachers faced problems in SBA implementation but overall had a positive attitude towards SBA. Teachers voiced concerns over the lack of adequate staff numbers, lack of uniformity and a possible element of biasness in grading. Teachers also faced time constraints, lack of effective materials and methodologies and poor ICT facilities in schools. They also feared cheating by students in SBAs. Future researchers should investigate the success of SBA implementation after a few years.
Ismail, Rahmah, and Noorasiah Sulaiman. "Married Women Labor Supply Decision in Malaysia." Asian Social Science 10, no. 3 (2014): p221.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n3p221
Abstract
In modern living, the participation of female in the labor market is becoming essential for development economy. The higher educational attainment among females makes it easier for them to find jobs and to be involved in the labor market. Nevertheless, the participation of women in the labor market is less prevalent than for men, especially for married women, where family responsibilities and household chores become obstacles for them. This paper attempts to identify the determinants of married women's participation in the labor market based on 3,520 data collected in 2011 through a field survey. The results from this study show that educational attainment, women's age and number of children are major determinants of the supply of married women labor. In contrast, husbands' wage and own wage are insignificantly determined the supply of married women labor in this study.
bin Mohammad, Hisham, Mohd Sobri bin Minai, and Esuh Ossai-Igwe Lucky. "Managerial Factors and Management Conflict in Venture Capital Financing in Malaysia." Asian Social Science 10, no. 3 (2014): p253.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n3p253
Abstract
The warm venture cooperation built between venture capitalists and entrepreneurs may still be interrupted by the management's conflicts occurred due to various managerial factors. As a result, this study investigates the management conflict in venture capital investments. A cross-sectional study of questionnaire survey research design was conducted in this respect. Questionnaire data was generated from 35 Malaysian venture capital companies located in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. The questionnaires were distributed through the mailing procedure. Overall, the findings indicate that the managerial factors significantly influence the management conflict. Further results show that managerial factors which consist of Deal Origination and Screening (DOS), Evaluating Venture Proposal (EVP), Contracting and Deal Structuring (CDS), Monitoring and Post Investment Activities (MPI) and Risk Management (RM) significantly influence the formation of management conflict in venture cooperation. Based on the findings, it is inferred that managerial factors does influence the occurrence of management conflict in venture cooperation. Thus, the study recommends that Malaysian venture capitalists give consideration to the managerial factors in reducing or curbing the possibility of conflict to occur.
Alias, Emmy Farha, Alias Radam, Yeong Pei Fen, Mohd Rusli Yacob, and Md Ferdous Alam. "Growth in Malaysia’s Export Food Market: A Shift-Share Analysis." Asian Social Science 10, no. 3 (2014): p26.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n3p26
Abstract
Agriculture sector plays an important role in the Malaysian economy. Malaysia experiences deficit in food balance of trade but some of the agricultural products such as palm oil, fisheries etc. have competitive advantage. This paper aims to examine Malaysia's export food market growth between 1996 and 2009 using shift-share analysis. Findings show that the major export commodities from Malaysia are animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes (HS 15) during the said period. The increasing growth rate of Malaysia's exports is found in the newly industrialized countries such as China, Iran, India and Ukraine due to their increasing demand for edible oil. However, influences of the trading agreements between these countries also cannot be denied.
Ahmed, Shumaila, and Juliana Abdul Wahab. "Animation and Socialization Process: Gender Role Portrayal on Cartoon Network." Asian Social Science 10, no. 3 (2014): p44.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n3p44
Abstract
Animated cartoons for young children have always been significant in the life of many children all over the world. The present research is conducted to investigate the gender representation of male and female characters in the animated cartoons broadcasted from Cartoon Network, the worldwide popular channel for children. This popular TV genre is broadcasted in different languages from Japan, Pakistan, Australia, Taiwan, Korea, Malaysia, India and many other countries of Asia and pacific as well. Content analysis of selected animated genre or cartoons broadcasted from the month of Jan to July, 2013 is done. The objective of this paper is to examine the representation of male and female characters in children's animated genre. The universe for the present article is the most popular cartoon channel for children. The technique of purposive sampling is used to analyze the data and to represent the findings of the research. The relationship among the data collected is also explored. The findings of the study reveal that the worldwide popular animated cartoon channel for children portrays the male and female characters in a biased and stereotypical way, which to a certain extent play an important role in socialization process for shaping and constructing ideas about male and female's position and characteristics in society.
Haron, Razali. "Key Factors Influencing Target Capital Structure of Property Firms in Malaysia." Asian Social Science 10, no. 3 (2014): p62.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n3p62
Abstract
Very limited studies have been done on the capital structure of property firms in Malaysia emphasizing on the presence of target capital structure and the affecting determinants and also the speed of adjustment to target leverage. Thus, this study aims to investigate these issues among the property firms in Malaysia by using a dynamic model. This study finds that these property firms do practice target capital structure which is influenced by certain firm characteristics like non-debt tax shield, asset structure, profitability, firm size, growth opportunity and liquidity in their capital structure and they also time their security issuance. Being deviated from target from time to time these property firms partially adjust indicating a support for the dynamic trade-off theory. There are also influences of the pecking order and the market timing theories in the capital structure decisions of these property firms. This study contributes to the literature by offering insights of the capital structure practice and the adjustment speed to target capital structure of property firms in Malaysia and fills the gap in the literature.
Yaacob, Salmy Edawati. "The Ruling of Paper Money Usage: Analysis Based on the Evolution of Currency Development." Asian Social Science 10, no. 3 (2014): p86.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n3p86
Abstract
Efforts to regain and elevate the usage of gold dinar in Malaysia have created various polemics either from the legal viewpoint, economic transactions, and the position of currency law. Views from some quarters advocating gold dinar as the currency demanded in Islam have implications on the use of paper money today. Consequently, some gold dinar activist groups in Malaysia forbid the use of paper money due to the lack of gold backing. This has created confusion amongst the communities on the law of paper money usage. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the views of the Muslim scholars regarding the forbidden use of paper money and the Islamic point of view. This analysis is based on the various phases of world currency development beginning from the first phase (paper currency as a receipt of debt), the second phase (a means of payment/fulus), the third phase (paper money as gold value backed) and the fourth phase (paper money as a principal currency). This study is in the form of qualitative by using the library research approach. The result of this study shows that the use of paper money is permissible because currently paper money has become the world principal money and no longer as a receipt of debt. The Council of Islamic Fiqh Academy (Majlis Majmac al-Fiqhi al-Islami) 5th session held in 1402H/1982AD is also with a resolution that the use of paper money is permissible.
Tiraieyari, Neda, Azimi Hamzah, and Bahaman Abu Samah. "Organic Farming and Sustainable Agriculture in Malaysia: Organic Farmers' Challenges towards Adoption." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p1.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p1
Abstract
Agriculture in Malaysia is characterised by high levels of fertiliser and manure applications and consequently environmental pollution. Sustainable agriculture and organic farming are being promoted by the government as a way of eliminating unsustainable agriculture. Despite the benefits that organic farming brings to farmers and environments, its adoption rate is still low among Malaysian farmers. A study of organic farmers in the Cameron Highlands was conducted to reveal the challenges that have been occurred with regard to adoption of the practice. The results indicate that organic farmers face challenges with regard to land tenure, certification processes, hiring foreign workers, marketing, training and extension services and governmental support. Issues and challenges were discussed. The paper concludes with some recommendations.
Halima, Hazlina Abdul, Ang Lay Hoonb, Roslina Mamatc, and Normaliza Ab Rahimd. "Perception of Malaysian Learners on the Use of Written Communication Strategies in Mandarin, French and Japanese." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p153.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p153
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the perception of Malaysian learners on the use of written communication strategies in French, Mandarin and Japanese language learning. The subjects consisted of 2nd and 3rd year Malaysian students at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A total of 173 subjects participated in this study. The main instrument used was a 2-section questionnaire on the demographic and the perception on the use of written communication strategies. The items for the questionnaires on the perception of learners on communication strategies were adapted from Dörnyei (1995) Taxonomy of Communication Strategies. The overall findings indicated that the learners perceived to be using the written communication strategies moderately. The results across the three languages further indicated that 'appeal for help' and 'topic avoidance' were perceived to be frequently used by French, Mandarin and Japanese learners. It was suggested that further intensive research should be conducted to look into the commonly used communication strategies to develop a comprehensive framework for the incorporation of communication strategy in French, Mandarin and Japanese language learning instruction, materials and tasks for Malaysian learners.
Awang, Amran, Ahmad Ismail, and Zulkafli Mansor. "Socioeconomic Impacts of Myanmar’s Malay Muslim Immigrant in Malaysia." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p161.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p161
Abstract
The study examines the socioeconomic impact of Myanmar's Malay Muslim immigrant (MMMI) in Langkawi on the issues of socioeconomic and environmental perspectives. The study investigates the extent of impact due to the presence of immigrants in wage competitiveness in the local jobs, distraction of small sea fishing activities and the impact of the environment of the immigrant's dwelling area. The study establishes indicator on the national's economic vision towards innovation and automation of the construction and plantation industry advances. The aim of the research is to study what is the perception of the community towards the existence of the MMMI. The study uses multiple regression analysis to support the proposed hypothesis. The findings ascertained to some extent regarding issues in wage competitiveness. The immigrants were found to contribute to environmental nuisance to the surrounding area. Consequently, the analysis justified respondents had showed agreement on the issue that the immigrants are threatening local community's well beings.
Muslim, Nazri, and Nasruddin Yunos. "The Direction of Generic Skills Courses at National University of Malaysia (UKM) towards Fulfilling Malaysian Qualifications Framework." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p195.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p195
Abstract
One of the key issues of the country is poor command of certain skills among university graduates from Public Higher Education Institute (PHEI). This matter has increased the rate of unemployment among graduates. This is because the industry as one of the key sectors of the economy generators needs human capital that masters various skills. The industry is facing global competition that requires them to participate and compete. Hence, to ensure that their position remains strong and relevant, human capital that masters skills such as communication skills, decision making, teamwork and others are urgently needed. Hence the emphasis on the aspects of these skills should be incorporated in the national education system. This article discusses the direction of generic skills courses at the National University of Malaysia in fulfilling the needs of Malaysian qualifications framework. This study is performed through analysis methodology on relevant documents in the matter. The study found that the National University of Malaysia has already implemented adoption of generic skills in courses offered, in fulfilling Malaysian qualifications framework. This will produce a student that is equipped with generic skills and further meets the needs of the job market.
Sukpaiboonwat, Sivalap, Chucheep Piputsitee, and Arunee Punyasavatsut. "Measuring the Degree of Market Concentration in Thailand Insurance Industry." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p214.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p214
Abstract
This paper investigates market structure of life insurance and non-life insurance industry in Thailand. This paper uses the Concentration Ratio and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index to measure the degree of market concentration. The paper also analyzes various data from all type of insurance premium, balance sheet and income statement to measure the concentration and competition trend. An analysis of life insurance premium, group market is unconcentrated where as ordinary and industry markets are concentrated. As for the life insurance balance sheet and income statement are concentrated market. An analysis of non-life insurance premium, fire, marine and transportation and automobile markets are unconcentrated. As for the non-life insurance balance sheet and income statement are unconcentrated market. In terms of the same sub-categorized product, personal accident and health insurance have difference concentrate degree. Personal accident in life insurance is near monopoly and highly concentrated market while personal accident in non-life insurance is loose oligopoly and moderate concentrated market. Health insurance in life and non-life insurance are tight oligopoly and concentrated market. The results conclude that the life insurance industry is more concentrated than the non-life insurance industry. In both segments of the insurance market, as well as in the overall insurance sector, there is a downward trend in market concentration, which indicates the success of the competition promoting process which allows a greater and better choice for customers.
Al Shams, Ahmed Raad, and Nurwati Badarulzaman. "Evaluating the City Image: A Focus on Landmarks of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p241.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p241
Abstract
One of the main issues that have been considered about Kuala Lumpur city is its indistinguishable identity and image, partly due to the rapid development and expansion of the city structure over many decades. Inevitably, forming a distinctive city image is not an easy task as it depends primarily on the manner of reciprocal interactions between people and their surrounding built environment. This paper examines the relationship and interaction between people and the city structure, specifically through public evaluation of landmarks as one of the five elements of the city image. The people's background and their evaluation of the landmarks' features are examined in this study. To achieve this objective, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using mixed-techniques involving a questionnaire survey of 120 respondents followed by an unstructured interview. The results show significant differences in the public evaluation of landmarks based on the respondents' nationality and ethnicity. Differences in the evaluation are related to the landmark factors namely unique; memorable; legible; historic; design; scale; meaningful and color. Much effort by the local authorities is necessary to create a distinguishable image of Kuala Lumpur that reflects the city's fusion of modern and traditional lifestyles, and diversified cultures and values.
Yaowapan, Prakrit. "Khaen: The Musical Forms in Ceremony." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p255.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p255
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to study and compare the musical forms of Khaen (bamboo free-reed mouthorgan) played in The Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. The comparison of musical forms of Khaen in the rites between Nang Thiam (the representative spirit) ceremony in Laos and Lam Song (the representative spirit) ceremony in Thailand were the same sound modes: Lai Thang Sun (medium tone to high tone: delighted rhythm) and Lai Thang Yao (medium tone to low tone: sad rhythm). There was a similarity in blowing, tonguing, and fingering; for instance, used wind from blowing, tongue, and fingers to shift volume, accelerate rhythm, and chorus.
Riyanti, S., M. Hatta, S. Norhafizah, M. N. Balkish, Z. M. Siti, Hamizatul Akmal AH, and A. Normawati. "Organ Donation by Sociodemographic Characteristics in Malaysia." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p264.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p264
Abstract
Willingness to pledge as an organ donor after death in Malaysia increased from 26 donors to 39 donors in 2009 compared with the previous year. However, this is still a relatively low number, translating to a donation rate of 1.38 per one million people. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of receiving information about organ donation, willingness to donate, refusal factors for organ donation and reasons for refusal. We used data from organ donation module from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2006, a nationwide cross-sectional study by the Institute for Public Health. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 19 and Stata Ver. 11 for descriptive and inferential statistics. They were 34,208 respondents in this study. About 69.6% (95%CI: 68.65-70.15 respondents who ever received information on organ donation and the proportion of those who pledged as organ donors was 1.5% (95%CI: 1.40-1.70). Pledge for organ donor was less likely among Malays (aOR=3.45, p<0.001), those with no formal education (aOR=3.93, p=0.001) and those with monthly incomes less than RM1000 (aOR=1.87, p=0.001). Main reasons for not pledging were fear (39.4%), against their religion (10.5%) and uncertainty because of religion (10.9%). Study revealed receiving information alone won't encourage organ donation. Therefore, awareness and in-depth knowledge is necessity to create positive perception on pledging for organ donation.
Demartoto, Argyo, and Desiderius Priyo Sudibyo. "A Sustainable Comprehensive Service through Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS in the HIV/AIDS Management Program in Surakarta City of Indonesia." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p52.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p52
Abstract
This research aimed to find out the demographic, social and economic characteristics of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA); stakeholders' knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward HIV/AIDS and people with HIV/AIDS; comprehensive and sustainable support and service, the application of Greater Involvement of People With HIV/AIDS (GIPA) as well as the contribution of stakeholders to the HIV/AIDS management program in Surakarta City. The research method employed was an exploratory one. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling one. The data collection was conducted using observation, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion, and documentation. Technique of analyzing data used was an interactive model of analysis. The result of research showed that in Surakarta, generally PLWHA were productive, male, heterosexual and working as employees, having medical problem and social culture such as developing opportunistic infection, antriretroviral (ARV) drug side effect, depression, experiencing discrimination, negative stigma, isolation by the family and society member. The stakeholders of sustainable and comprehensive service in dealing with HIV/AIDS in Surakarta City had good knowledge about HIV/AIDS, caring and responsiveness to the PLWHA. A comprehensive and sustainable support and service started during undertaking test; ARV drugs procurement, ethical and non-discriminatory treatment; opportunistic infection prevention and treatment; non-medical therapy and Peer-Group Support. GIPA program and activities through Peer Support Group included treatment consultation; drug compliance supervising service; home visit and hospital visit; socialization of HIV/AIDS to the community and sharing activity. The stakeholders contributed to the HIV/AIDS management program, particularly in the terms of program implementation policy, structure, and process, thereby it could run well through good cooperation, coordination and communication among the stakeholders on the basis of mutual interest and objective.
Long, Choi Sang, Tan Owee Kowang, Teoh Ai Ping, and Rajendran Muthuveloo. "Investigation on the Impact of Job Stressors on Nurses in Malaysia." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p67.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p67
Abstract
Stress can affect individual's performance which in turn can impact an organization's performance. This study was conducted in order to gain a better understanding of what types of situations cause stress in health service providers and how that stress affects job performance especially services that provided to the patients in hospitals. Authors hope to identify the relationship between the job stressors towards job performance of nurses. 300 questionnaires were distributed to qualified nurses in 7 private hospitals across Malaysia. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used as the software to analyze the data and test the hypotheses. Outcomes from a series of hypothesis tests support the researchers' study that each independent variable has significant relationship to job performance of nurses.
Goh, Q. R., M. N. Annuar, and M. A. Zariyawati. "The Benefits of Diversification in Asean Stock Market to Malaysia Investors." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p78.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p78
Abstract
The establishment of ASEAN Exchange had removed the barriers and hassles from investors in six ASEAN member countries to invest freely and easily within the six countries' stock market, including Malaysia. This study aimed to analyse whether the establishment of ASEAN Exchange, can provide diversification benefit to Malaysian investors compared with their domestically diversified portfolio. The analysis is done based on 25 companies which selected from each participating ASEAN country by using Efficient Frontier Model. In addition, Sharpe Ratio had also been developed and analysed to provide an insight to Malaysia and ASEAN investors regarding the attractiveness of each ASEAN market. The results of this study conclusively show that an ASEAN level of diversification does bring benefits to Malaysian investors, as ASEAN portfolio outperforms all individual country's portfolio.
Basirion, Zainon, Rosadah Abd Majid, and Zalizan Mohd Jelas. "Big Five Personality Factors, Perceived Parenting Styles, and Perfectionism among Academically Gifted Students." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p8.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p8
Abstract
This study focuses on the examination of Big Five personality factors and perceived parenting styles in predicting positive and negative perfectionism among academically gifted students. Through cross-sectional random sampling procedures, 448 form four students (16 years old) involved particularly those who scored straight A's in Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR). The participants responded to three related instruments, comprises of the International Personality Item Pool, Parental Authority Questionnaire, and Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. The study utilized K-Mean cluster analysis to cluster the perfectionism of the students. Stepwise multiple regressions used to determine the role of Big Five personality factors and perceived parenting styles in predicting positive and negative perfectionism. The findings showed 259 (57.8%), 136 (30.4%), and 53 (11.8%) students were clustered to dysfunctional/neurotic perfectionistic, healthy/normal perfectionistic, and non-perfectionistic, respectively. The results of two separate stepwise multiple regression analyses found that positive perfectionism was significantly predicted by several factors including paternal authoritative style, openness to experiences, maternal authoritative style, and conscientiousness. On the other hand, negative perfectionism was significantly predicted by maternal authoritarian style, neuroticism, and paternal authoritarian style. As predicted, permissive parenting style showed no contribution in predicting positive and negative perfectionism. Implications, limitations, and recommendation of the study are addressed briefly in this research. In fact, this is one of the first empirical studies of perfectionism relating to Big Five personality factors and perceived parenting styles among academically gifted students in Malaysia.
Wahab, Norazla Abdul, Mohd Al Adib Samuri, Zuliza Mohd Kusrin, and Anita Abdul Rahim. "Legal Issues in Implementing the Community Service Orders for Child Offenders in Malaysia." Asian Social Science 10, no. 4 (2014): p93.
DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n4p93
Abstract
Community service orders are a proposed alternative form of punishment for children who have been or are in conflict with the law. Despite an absence of clear laws in Malaysia pertaining to this order regarding its application to child offenders, it is nonetheless viewed as a more suitable form of punishment in protecting a child offender's best interest compared to a fine or a sentence of imprisonment. In light of the above, the objective of this article is to analyse two main legal issues relating to the future implementation of community service orders as an alternative form of sentence, such as the number of credit hours per sentence and the types of community service activities to be implemented. The research has shown that there is no uniformity in determining the minimum and maximum amount of credit hours in implementing community service orders against child offenders where some countries may have the maximum of 80 to 150 hours and 8 to 10 hours for the minimum. The research also found that community service orders have greatly benefited both the society and child offenders; the child offenders will be integrated back to the society and might as well undergo their rehabilitation process. This research may be significant in preparing guidelines or a complete implementation model for community service orders applicable to child offenders in Malaysia, as well as a reference for the Officers in the Community Service Department and Magistrates in the Child Courts in Malaysia.
Nguyen, Tu Phuong. "Rethinking State-Society Relations in Vietnam: The Case of Business Associations in Ho Chi Minh City." Asian Studies Review 38, no. 1 (2014): 87-106.
DOI: 10.1080/10357823.2013.872598
Abstract
The growing private sector in the post-reform Vietnamese economy and its new forms of mobilisation have led to newly emergent social forces that have shaped internal state agendas and political deliberations. With a view to exploring the nature of institutional change in Vietnam, I argue that business associations have played a crucial intermediary role between the state and the private sector over past decades. These associations and the spaces of governance that they constitute are neither characteristic of autonomous actors as suggested by liberal theory nor a form of state corporatism. This paper adopts the "state-in-society" approach, which contends that the state and society should be considered through new governance spaces within the state. These spaces create institutional mechanisms for interaction between the government and business, and provide a framework for deliberative engagement between state and non-state actors. This framework will be tested through an examination of associations of small and medium enterprises in Ho Chi Minh City and their connections to the city authorities. I argue that business associations will be accommodated by the state and will coalesce with existing bureaucratic interests. This proposition contributes to the new research agenda that applies the state-in-society approach to post-socialist institutions. © 2014 Asian Studies Association of Australia.
Wright, Sarah. "Quantitative Research Performing other Worlds: lessons from sustainable agriculture in the Philippines." Australian Geographer 45, no. 1 (2014): 1-18.
DOI: 10.1080/00049182.2014.869293
Abstract
For those interested in ethical research, quantitative methods are often dismissed as apolitical; as unreflective exercises in 'mere counting'. If, however, in doing research, we bring into being the very worlds we purport to describe, the question begs: what kinds of worlds might quantitative methods bring into being? Is there space for a reflexive, quantitative research agenda? In this paper, I will discuss an action-based predominantly quantitative research project that aimed to investigate the diverse impacts of sustainable agriculture on small-scale farmers in the Philippines. The study, one of the largest ever undertaken on organic rice production, was consciously designed, not merely to describe, but to perform organic agriculture differently. While most quantitative, and indeed much qualitative, research ignores its performativity, this research was intended to enact a reality of sustainable agriculture as a viable and vital alternative to mainstream, capitalist agriculture. © 2014 Geographical Society of New South Wales Inc.
Mura, Paolo, and Rokhshad Tavakoli. 2012. "Tourism and social capital in Malaysia." Current Issues in Tourism no. 17 (1):28-45
DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2012.718320
Abstract
This article explores the relationship between social capital and tourism in Malaysia. Social capital is a concept that has received particular attention within the social sciences. Despite this, scholars have relatively neglected whether and how tourism contributes to enhance levels of social capital. This is particularly true if non-Western societies, such as Malaysia, are referred to. Malaysia is a plural society that consists of three main ethnic groups, namely Malays, Chinese, and Indians. Considering the country's diverse socio-cultural fabric, social capital is a highly debated topic in Malaysia. Yet, there exists a paucity of data on how specific social practices, such as tourism, strengthen social relationships within Malaysian society. In an attempt to fill this gap, in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 Malaysians from the three main ethnic groups. The findings reveal that tourism is an experience that creates and strengthens social relationships among people irrespective of ethnic background. Overall, this article's contribution to our knowledge is twofold. First, the work on which this article is based contributes to the ongoing debate concerning the nature and meaning of tourism and post-tourism experiences. Second, it provides empirical material on non-Western tourists, who have been relatively neglected by tourism scholars. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.
Cuesta, José. and Madrigal, Lucia. (2014), Equity in Education Expenditure in Thailand. Development Policy Review, 32: 239–258
DOI: 10.1111/dpr.12053
Abstract
This article analyses the distributional effects of education spending across regions of Thailand, a country that purportedly seeks to reduce regional welfare disparities through decentralisation. It finds that public expenditure on education is neither progressive nor pro-poor, although there are sizeable regional differences, driven by the pro-rich distributional profiles of public tertiary education spending and public transfers to private education. Policy-wise, these results suggest that the current decentralised allocation of educational spending is not consistent with an equity-enhancing goal. © 2014 Overseas Development Institute. © The Authors 2014.
Goodwin, John, Henrietta O’Connor, and Martin Quinn. "Training and labour needs of young workers in Vietnamese organisations." Education+ Training 56, no. 1 (2014): 35-46.
DOI: 10.1108/ET-10-2012-0092
Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is report on findings from a survey of Vietnamese employers in 2008 highlighting key tends in training and future labour needs. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses data collected from a survey of Vietnamese employers during 2008. The survey was design by the authors and the fieldwork undertaken by representatives of the Vietnamese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI) with support from the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Findings: The survey shows that Vietnamese organisations understand the importance of training for their young workers but require more support from government and the VCCI to ensure effective training. Practical implications: The paper contains a number of practical implications for Vietnamese employers and the VCCI. Originality/value: Despite some opening of trade between Vietnam and the west, relatively little is still known about work, employment and training in Vietnam and there a few opportunities to undertake research of this nature. The main contribution of this paper is to report on current training practices and labour needs in Vietnam. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Tie, Fatt Hee. 2014. "A Study on the Legal Literacy of Urban Public School Administrators." Education and Urban Society no. 46 (2):192-208
DOI: 10.1177/0013124512446220
Abstract
This study investigates the legal literacy of urban public school administrators in Malaysia. Data were collected from 109 school administrators. The instrument that was administered to the respondents comprised two parts: Part 1, the background information of the respondents; and Part 2, items on the law related to schools, such as teachers' duty of care, classroom supervision, and corporal punishment. The article discusses the findings of the research and provides some recommendations to school administrators to reduce the risk of litigation. © The Author(s) 2012.
Alburo-Cañete, Kaira Zoe K. 2014. "Bodies at Risk: “Managing” Sexuality and Reproduction in the Aftermath of Disaster in the Philippines." Gender, Technology and Development no. 18 (1):33-51
DOI: 10.1177/0971852413515356
Abstract
This article explores the intersection of sexual and reproductive health, development and human rights in the context of managing post-disaster relief and rehabilitation operations. As a case study, it investigates the disaster response and rehabilitation efforts carried out in southern Philippines after the devastation wrought by the tropical storm Washi (locally known as Sendong) in December 2011, which resulted in thousands of casualties, with thousands more displaced and forced to live in makeshift evacuation centers. Using a varied range of methods for data collection, including personal interviews, group workshops, body mapping, and a socio-demographic and reproductive health survey in evacuation camps, the study reveals how post-disaster interventions and strategies remain grounded in medicotechnical and managerial narratives, thereby marginalizing the sexual and gendered dimensions of calamities. I argue that this marginalization in disaster risk-management practices renders gender and sexuality impersonal, disembodied and apolitical. In doing so, disaster risk management runs the risk of reproducing inequalities, vulnerabilities, and social exclusion in the aftermath of calamities. This article aims at broadening our understanding of disaster risk reduction and management by re-centering sexuality and reproduction in the discourse of humanitarian intervention as a matter of human rights, and not only as a medical(ized) issue. © 2014 Asian Institute of Technology.
Yao Sua, Tan, and Teoh Hooi See. "Ethnic contestation and language policy in a plural society: the Chinese language movement in Malaysia, 1952–1967." History of Education 43, no. 2 (2014): 251-268.
DOI: 10.1080/0046760X.2014.880751
Abstract
The Chinese language movement was launched by the Chinese educationists to demand the recognition of Chinese as an official language to legitimise the status of Chinese education in the national education system in Malaysia. It began in 1952 as a response to the British attempt to establish national primary schools teaching in English and Malay to replace the vernacular primary schools. It picked up pace when the Chinese educationists managed to garner political support for their demand. But the Chinese educationists decided to halt the movement prior to the election of an interim local government following political promises to safeguard Chinese education. Unfortunately, subsequent developments did not live up to their expectations, leading to the revival of the movement, which reached new heights prior to the enactment of the National Language Act in 1967. But the movement was strongly contested by the Malay nationalists affiliated to a language action front. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Alimi, Moh Yasir. "Local repertoires of reasoning and the Islamist movement in post-authoritarian Indonesia." Indonesia and the Malay World 42, no. 122 (2014): 24-42.
DOI: 10.1080/13639811.2014.884315
Abstract
This study seeks to give nuance to the current scholarship on the Islamist movement in post-authoritarian Indonesia that largely focuses on its transnational features. Through an analysis of a local Islamist movement, tied to a particular place and local history and detailed reconstruction of contestation over religion and identity in South Sulawesi during the turbulent years following the collapse of Suharto, I argue that its success in the area was based on its effective use of local repertoires of reasoning (local history, adat, rituals and memory), rather than through scriptural arguments. Often thought as being an antithesis to local elements and rituals, the various Islamist movements also exploit local repertoires of reasoning to justify their agenda: the formalisation of sharia. In contrast to the existing studies about the Islamist movement in post-Suharto Indonesia which often emphasises the violence and the vigilantism, this study invites us to see the intellectualism of an Islamist movement born during the period. © 2014 © 2014 Editors, Indonesia and the Malay World.
Césard, Nicolas. 2013. "Heirlooms and marriage payments." Indonesia and the Malay World no. 42 (122):62-87.
DOI: 10.1080/13639811.2013.860261
Abstract
Drawing from literature and ethnography, this article attempts to distinguish the origin, social implications and main uses of prestige jars in Borneo. It suggests that to understand these differences in the societies of Borneo requires an understanding of how these objects are acquired and transmitted between families. The article considers the processes by which an object can become, with time, something other than what it had previously been. The term pusaka commonly used to describe these jars does not encompass other significant uses of the jars as it is often used narrowly to refer to heirloom jars, and broadly, to heirloom jars and sacred heirloom jars. These jars are also, and without being pusaka, ordinary jars of varying economic value, given and exchanged especially as marriage payments. The relative lack of coherence in the literature about their usage reflects their various and multiple functions as well as their changing role. © 2013 © 2013 Editors, Indonesia and the Malay World.
Varkkey, Helena. 2014. "Regional cooperation, patronage and the ASEAN Agreement on transboundary haze pollution." International Environmental Agreements no. 14 (1):65-81.
DOI: 10.1007/s10784-013-9217-2
Abstract
Transboundary haze pollution is an almost annual occurrence in Southeast Asia. Haze originates from peat and forest fires mostly in Indonesia, with Malaysia and Singapore suffering the worst of its effects. Most of these fires are man-made and linked to land-clearing activities of local and foreign commercial oil palm plantations. The regional nature of the haze has resulted in a concentration of haze mitigation activities at the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) level. However, these initiatives continually fail to effectively mitigate haze. This article argues that this failure is due to the influence of patronage politics in the sector, which is linked to the ASEAN style of regional engagement that prioritises the maintenance of national sovereignty. States are compelled to act in their national interests, as opposed to the collective regional interests. The economic importance of the oil palm sector to the states involved, coupled with the political importance of the clients populating this sector to elite patrons in the governments, meant that the maintenance of the status quo, where clients could continue to clear land using fire, was of crucial national interest. Therefore, the ASEAN style of regional engagement has enabled political elites to shape ASEAN initiatives to preserve the interests of their clients, while the public continue to suffer the haze. This article demonstrates this through a close analysis of the negotiations, outcomes and the implementation of the ASEAN Agreement on transboundary haze pollution, with a special focus on Indonesia's decision to withhold ratification of the treaty. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Viernes, Noah. 2014. "The Magistrate is the Muse: Law and Visual Economy in Bangkok." International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue internationale de Sémiotique juridique no. 27 (1):27-46.
DOI: 10.1007/s11196-013-9318-9
Abstract
Governmentality is a spatial formation negotiated within historically-constituted political landscapes. In Bangkok, this spatialization of power is manifested in the militarization of urban life and the protocols of security procedure, but also in anti-government protests and an increasingly politicized visual culture. The memory and meaning of the city's streets exist as an overlooked legibility that challenges the visual strategies of government control. Monuments, travel routes, and other public sites of national recognition now compete in an extended urban arena of images, such as literature and cinema, which re-stage governmentality and the material contours of Thailand's contemporary political disagreements outside of its institutional norms. I read this intersection between governing and image circulation through the development of a visual economy in Bangkok and depict how different communities-including a bureaucratized military and a populist political party, but also writers and filmmakers-intervene in its circulation. Each group zooms in on key spaces of the city in the attempt to speak to changing forms of governmentality. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Chang, Sharon, and Renuka Mahadevan. 2014. "Fad, fetish or fixture: contingent valuation of performing and visual arts festivals in Singapore." International Journal of Cultural Policy no. 20 (3):318-340
DOI: 10.1080/10286632.2013.817396
Abstract
This paper analyses how much culture is valued in a newly-developed economy with a distinct dichotomy of an arts-appreciating population segment and a less-culturally aware mass. An analytical framework weaving together the intrinsic, business and societal benefits of arts and culture is applied to explore whether arts festivals - a popular tourism event in many countries - are a temporary fad, an expensive governmental fetish or a naturally-evolving fixture. This has implications for government funding and cultural policy. Empirical evidence supports the notion that the long-running performing arts festival is a not a fad but a fixture with some fetish elements while the visual arts festival appears to be a fad but has the potential to be a fixture. Of particular concern, however, is the evidence from both festivals that the perceptions of community benefit, business benefits as well as bequest value from the arts are not significant determinants of willingness to pay for these events. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Tang, Zheng Sophia. 2014. "Cross-border enforcement of gambling contracts: A comparative study." International Journal of Private Law no. 7 (1):1-19.
DOI: 10.1504/IJPL.2014.059072
Abstract
Transnational gambling activities face the conflict of different substantive laws and regulations in different countries and generate conflict of laws questions about the enforcement of gambling contracts. This article conducts a comparative study of the enforcement of foreign gambling contracts in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Canada, France, Singapore, and some states of the USA. It concludes that the current practice in most countries will not use fundamental public policy to refuse the enforcement of gambling contracts, which are legal and enforceable at the place where the contracts are performed, regardless of their domestic law. Refusing the enforcement of all gambling debts incurred abroad incur more difficulties and social problems, which are demonstrated by the current situation between Mainland China and Macau. The specific characteristics of gambling industry determine that this issue is best left for each domestic court to decide by using its own discretion.Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Chang, Chew-Hung. 2014. "Is Singapore's school geography becoming too responsive to the changing needs of society?" International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education no. 23 (1):25-39
DOI: 10.1080/10382046.2013.858405
Abstract
In understanding the divergences and commonalities in the representations of geography across different national settings, the case of Singapore is examined through the notion of politicisation of school curricula to meet the needs of "significant power groups". In particular, the development of school geography in Singapore and its response to changes in the education system are discussed, followed by an analysis of its development in relation to changes in academic geography. This is followed by a discussion on the place of school geography in responding to social and cultural concerns. Through content analyses of syllabus documents and secondary data, this article examines the role of each of the significant power groups in academic geography and the state and how they have shaped Singapore's school geography curriculum. While Singapore's school geography has been very responsive to changing educational processes, social demands and, to some extent, the development in academic geography, this has come at a price where the subject is now under threat from falling student intakes and what could be described as an abridged geography. The author argues that while responsiveness is a key factor to ensure the continued existence of the subject, stakeholders should not lose sight of a holistic understanding of geography as a discipline of study. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Chow, Hwee Kwan, G. C. Lim, and Paul D. McNelis. 2014. "Monetary regime choice in Singapore: Would a Taylor rule outperform exchange-rate management?" Journal of Asian Economics no. 30:63-81
DOI: 10.1016/j.asieco.2013.09.001
Abstract
A DSGE-VAR approach was adopted to examine the managed exchange-rate system at work in Singapore and to ask if the country had any reason to fear floating the exchange rate and adopting a Taylor rule. The results showed that, in terms of overall inflation volatility, the exchange rate rule had a comparative advantage over the Taylor rule when export-price shocks were the major sources of real volatility while a Taylor rule was preferable when domestic productivity shocks were dominant. The exchange-rate rule also dominated the Taylor rule for reducing inflation persistence. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Tran, Thi Tuyet. "Governance in higher education in Vietnam–a move towards decentralization and its practical problems." Journal of Asian Public Policy 7, no. 1 (2014): 71-82.
DOI: 10.1080/17516234.2013.873341
Abstract
Decentralization, the transfer of decision-making authority, responsibility and tasks from higher to lower organizational levels, has been adopted as a policy in governance in higher education (HE) in Vietnam. With the decision to move away from the traditional centralization in decision-making, the government expects to bring HE institutions more autonomy and accountability, and increase the effectiveness of the system. However, the limited understanding and experience in leading the change, the unclear strategies for successful policy implementation, the overlapping functions among different related authorities and the lack of necessary financial support for the change, all hinder the effort to decentralize the system. The reform in governance in HE in Vietnam also proves that decentralization is not necessarily a good thing, especially when the lower organizations who receive the power are not strong enough to create a positive change, and when the central ministry also loosens the control over the outcomes or the goals the lower organizations need to achieve. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Kwon, Heonik. "Spirits in the work of Durkheim, Hertz and Mauss: Reflections on post-war Vietnam." Journal of Classical Sociology 14, no. 1 (2014): 122-131.
DOI: 10.1177/1468795X13494724
Abstract
Scholars of the early French sociological school shared strong common intellectual interests, but they pursued these interests in both convergent and divergent perspectives. Focusing on the ideas of soul and spirit, this essay examines how Mauss and Hertz approached these ideas differently from Durkheim, leading to their distinct understandings of human solidarity and social inequality. It argues that the powerful legacies of these three formative members of the Année sociologique group become even more powerful and relevant if understood in an integrated perspective and in critical relation to one another. The discussion will be illustrated by an ethnographic study of Vietnamese culture of commemoration concerning the souls of tragic war dead. © The Author(s) 2013.
Seshan, Ganesh K. 2013. "The Impact of Trade Liberalisation on Household Welfare in a Developing Country with Imperfect Labour Markets." The Journal of Development Studies no. 50 (2):226-243
DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2013.833324
Abstract
I develop an empirical methodology to assess the distributional impact of trade-induced price shocks when labour markets are imperfect. The proposed methodology relates exogenous variations in prices to changes in household welfare using a separable agricultural household model that flexibly allows the data to determine the degree of labour market imperfections. Applying this approach to Vietnam, I investigate the impact of agriculture trade liberalisation between 1993 and 1998 on overall household welfare, measured using per capita household expenditure. I find that accounting for labour market imperfections results in welfare gains that are nearly four times larger than those found when assuming complete labour markets. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Hossain, AKM Nurul, and Mohammad Abdul Munim Joarder. "Does the formation of RTA support the neoclassical growth theory and convergence hypothesis?."Journal of Economic Studies 41, no. 1 (2014): 51-70.
DOI: 10.1108/JES-10-2011-0122
Abstract
Purpose: The authors considered three regional trading agreements (RTAs): European Union (EU-25), ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), and South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) to test the hypothesis that poor members within a RTA catch rich members and thereby follow the path of income convergence. Of particular interest is to test whether partial openness (i.e. formation of RTAs) or openness or political conditions are conducive to economic growth among the member countries of RTAs. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used pooled datasets from three different RTAs, namely the EU-25, the AFTA, and the SAFTA. Taking five years average for all variables, starting from 1961 to 1965 and extending to 2001-2005, the authors tested the hypothesis that the growth rate of per capita GDP is negatively related to the initial level of per capita GDP. Constructing a dynamic behavioral equation and forming the reduced form equation, the authors calculated the s-convergence, and both conditional and unconditional convergence. Findings: The authors found that both the EU-25 and the AFTA exhibit s-convergence, and both conditional and unconditional convergence, while the reverse evidence was observed in the case of the SAFTA. However, the speed of convergence of the AFTA was found to be much higher than that of the EU-25. Originality/value: Formation of RTA by countries should be considered as an essential condition to achieve sustained economic growth. In addition, political rights, trade openness, and more importantly benevolence of the member countries within the RTA must be shown to sustain economic growth and convergence; otherwise with the passage of time, divergence among the RTA members will be evident. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Wimanda, Rizki E. "Threshold effects of exchange rate depreciation and money growth on inflation: Evidence from Indonesia." Journal of Economic Studies 41, no. 2 (2014): 196-215.
DOI: 10.1108/JES-02-2012-0011
Abstract
Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the impact of exchange rate depreciation and money growth to the consumer price index (CPI) inflation in Indonesia. Design/methodology/approach: Using threshold model applied to Phillips curve equation. Findings: Using monthly data from 1980:1 to 2008:12, the econometric evidence shows that there are indeed threshold effects of money growth on inflation, but no threshold effect of exchange rate depreciation on inflation. Even though the threshold value for exchange rate depreciation is found at 8.4 percent, the F-test suggests that there is no significant difference between the coefficient below and that above the threshold value. While two threshold values are found for money growth, i.e. 7.1 and 9.8 percent, and they are statistically different. The impact on inflation is high when money grows by up to 7.1 percent, it is moderate when money grows by 7.1-9.8 percent, and it is low when money grows by above 9.8 percent. Research limitations/implications: This research is using methodology proposed by Hansen which the threshold is based on the minimum SSR. The value of SSR will differ from one model to one model. For example, model using quarterly data will give the different result from that using monthly or yearly data. Also, when the author uses the new data, the result could be different. Practical implications: Even though inflation targeting framework has been adopted by Bank Indonesia (BI) since 2005, BI should not disregard the monetary aggregate variable, especially M1. This is because the growth of money is still matter to influence inflation in the short run. The impact on inflation is found to be larger than the impact of exchange rate depreciation when it is below a certain threshold value. Originality/value: This is the first paper that evaluates the threshold effect of exchange rate and money growth in emerging country, especially in Indonesia. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Nguyen, Peter. "Transnational Vietnamese American Marriages in the New Land." Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 24, no. 2 (2014): 179-187.
DOI: 10.1080/10911359.2014.848691
Abstract
This article examines the transnational marriages between Vietnamese men living abroad and Vietnamese women living in Vietnam. By presenting conceptual and cultural evidence to discern the dynamics of gender roles and marriage expectations in transnational marriages, the article seeks to uncover the uniqueness of roles and expectations within this culture. A closer look reveals possible marital issues based on incongruent expectations between the two parties, which may lead to possible mental health and domestic violence issues. Further, the article expounds on the barriers in receiving help. Practice, policy, and research suggestions are included. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Yap, Felicia. 2013. "A ‘New Angle of Vision’: British Imperial Reappraisal of Hong Kong during the Second World War." The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History no. 42 (1):86-113
DOI: 10.1080/03086534.2013.852329
Abstract
This paper examines the involvement of British officials at the Stanley Internment Camp in Hong Kong in the perpetuation of imperial ideals during the Second World War, as well as in the eventual restoration of British rule to the territory. It highlights the debates that were conducted within the camp on issues of post-war reconstruction, as well as the strategies that were devised by the internees in anticipation of the new social, economic and political orders of the post-war colonial world. The paper also highlights similar discussions that transpired within the Changi Camp in Singapore and the Lintang Camp in Sarawak (Borneo) as supplementary case studies. Remarkably, many of these ideas ran in parallel with secret planning in London, where Hong Kong and Malayan governments-in-exile conceived revamped colonial administrations following the envisaged defeat of the Japanese. A number of these wartime schemes were even implemented after the Japanese surrender in August 1945, with significant impact on the phase of post-war British imperial revival. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Nishizaki, Yoshinori. 2014. "Peasants and the redshirt movement in Thailand: some dissenting voices." The Journal of Peasant Studies no. 41 (1):1-28.
DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2013.873409
Abstract
The 'redshirt' movement in Thailand is commonly portrayed in media and scholarly accounts as a class-based, pro-Thaksin social movement that draws fervent support from the poor rural-born masses, especially peasants, in the north and northeast. The movement leaders, including Thaksin, have supposedly won these people's support by framing urban-based political elites as ammart (aristocrats) who have stakes in suppressing the needs of phrai (serfs) - a contrasting label for the rural-born poor. I question this analysis that highlights the polarisation of Thai society along class lines. Combining data from election results and fieldwork in Chiang Mai Province - Thaksin's birthplace and the putative redshirt heartland - I show that despite their relative poverty, some peasants remain cynical opponents of the redshirt movement. They have autonomy to penetrate and reinterpret the redshirts' class-centric collective action frame - a fact that cautions us against linking rural poverty causally to rural support for redshirts. Peasants are a more diverse, politically divided lot than we are led to believe. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Ito, Takeshi, Noer Fauzi Rachman, and Laksmi A. Savitri. 2014. "Power to make land dispossession acceptable: a policy discourse analysis of the Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate (MIFEE), Papua, Indonesia." The Journal of Peasant Studies no. 41 (1):29-50
DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2013.873029
Abstract
The Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate (MIFEE) in Papua, Indonesia, is a state-led mega-project to transform local agriculture through large-scale corporate investment in food crops and biofuels for foreign markets. The project has led to extensive land dispossession, accompanied by devastating social and ecological impacts. This contribution analyzes how discourse regarding food and energy crises has been employed to release land from customary tenure to a coalition of state, corporate and local elite actors. The interests of these actors have converged on the state-led mega-project to transform local agriculture through large-scale corporate investment in food crops and biofuels in the name of national food security. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Oranratmanee, Rawiwan, and Veera Sachakul. "Streets as Public Spaces in Southeast Asia: Case Studies of Thai Pedestrian Streets." Journal of Urban Design 19, no. 2 (2014): 211-229.
DOI: 10.1080/13574809.2013.870465
Abstract
This paper explores the pedestrian streets in Thailand and the idea of the street as public space in Southeast Asia. Based on pilot studies in 15 pedestrian streets and detailed fieldwork in four case studies in Thailand, this paper reveals an informal manner of street use for socio-economic functions and the multivariate roles of the street in Southeast Asian cities. Providing a comparative worldview about the street as public space, this paper expands the scope of public space studies and contributes to the understanding of street markets and street use as public space in Southeast Asia, a topic that is rarely discussed in the world's urban design agenda. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Rudi, Lisa-Marie, Hossein Azadi, Frank Witlox, and Philippe Lebailly. "Land rights as an engine of growth? An analysis of Cambodian land grabs in the context of development theory." Land Use Policy 38 (2014): 564-572.
DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.12.016
Abstract
Forceful evictions have become a serious problem in Cambodia with an increasing number of families being deprived of their land, homes and livelihoods without compensation. This article analyses Cambodian land rights in the context of economic development theory. It assesses whether increasing economic inequalities, stemming from forceful evictions, can be categorized as an impediment to Cambodian economic growth. The Cambodian case illustrates that a lack of good governance due to corruption leads to the unequal distribution of land which, in turn, causes inequitable economic development. The paper concludes that Cambodia is trapped in a vicious cycle of inequality, which is upheld by elites who benefit from evictions and land concessions while evictees become trapped in poverty. Given that the population is growing angrier, the article warns of potential for a violent revolution that could have disastrous consequences for the Cambodian kingdom, a country that recently emerged from years of civil conflicts and is still in the process of rebuilding its social fabric. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben. "Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam: Implications for household vulnerability and community resilience." Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift-Norwegian Journal of Geography 68, no. 1 (2014): 1-9.
DOI: 10.1080/00291951.2013.870928
Abstract
Thulstrup, A.W. 2014. Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam: Implications for household vulnerability and community resilience. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift-Norwegian Journal of Geography Vol. 68, 1-9. ISSN 0029-1951.Social vulnerability to disturbances is influenced by the economic and political context in which actors and institutions both enable and constrain household access to productive resources. These resources are crucial as a means for mitigating, coping, and responding to impacts of natural disturbances. The Vietnamese Government has formulated policies aimed at achieving dual objectives of socio-economic development and environmental protection through the expansion of plantation forests. Negative social impacts and worrying environmental trends have been noted by a number of scholars. However, few studies have examined these issues at the local level or analysed the interplay between plantation forest expansion, household vulnerability, and community resilience to climatic disturbances. The article documents the extent to which the introduction of acacia tree species has reinforced existing inequalities in landholding, which in turn increases household vulnerability to natural disturbances. This has resulted in the emergence of a social-ecological context characterized by decreasing resilience. The most vulnerable households are those of the landless and ethnic minorities, both of which depend on short-term insecure income from casual labour. A growing concentration of landholdings, coupled with a commune economy based on monoculture plantations, threatens resilience and potentially could constrain future government development interventions. © 2014 © 2014 Norwegian Geographical Society.
Mincai, Yu. "China's Responses to the Compulsory Arbitration on the South China Sea Dispute: Legal Effects and Policy Options." Ocean Development & International Law 45, no. 1 (2014): 1-16.
DOI: 10.1080/00908320.2014.867190
Abstract
China's responses of turning its back on the compulsory arbitration initiated by the Philippines on 22 January 2013 with respect to aspects of the South China Sea dispute between them under Article 287 and Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and failing to participate in constituting the five-member Arbitral Tribunal raise issues of whether the arbitral process has or can be halted by China and whether China's nonparticipation is in its best interest. This article examines the legal effects of China's actions and China's policy options with respect to the arbitral procedure started by the Philippines. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Amer, Ramses. "China, Vietnam, and the South China Sea: Disputes and Dispute Management." Ocean Development & International Law 45, no. 1 (2014): 17-40.
DOI: 10.1080/00908320.2013.839160
Abstract
This article examines recent developments in the South China Sea; in particular, the China-Vietnam relationship. The developments are presented in the broader context of the Sino-Vietnamese approach to managing border disputes since full normalization of relations in late 1991. The challenges for China and Vietnam in managing their disputes and related tension in the South China Sea are also discussed. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Magnússon, Bjarni Már. "The Rejection of a Theoretical Beauty: The Foot of the Continental Slope in Maritime Boundary Delimitations Beyond 200 Nautical Miles." Ocean Development & International Law 45, no. 1 (2014): 41-52.
DOI: 10.1080/00908320.2013.839159
Abstract
This article addresses maritime boundary delimitation concerning the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. The focal point is how the foot of the continental slope can be used as the point of departure in drawing the provisional equidistance line in outer continental shelf boundary delimitations between neighboring states. The article examines the strength and weaknesses of this approach and asks whether the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea indirectly rejected this approach in the 2012 Bangladesh v. Myanmar Case. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Kong, Tat Yan. 2013. "The political obstacles to economic reform in North Korea: The ultra cautious strategy in comparative perspective." The Pacific Review no. 27 (1):73-96
DOI: 10.1080/09512748.2013.846933
Abstract
Unlike other surviving communist regimes (China, Vietnam, Cuba), North Korea has not been able to achieve sustained growth by reforming its economy. This article will trace the failure of economic reform in North Korea to the prevailing system of political governance based on Monolithic Leadership System (MLS) reinforced by Military First Politics (MFP). The political risk aversion of the MLS-MFP system permits only an ultra cautious reform strategy, but the potential of even ultra cautious reform cannot be fully realized. The detrimental effects of the MLS-MFP system include: excessive restriction of the development of grassroots capitalism; entrenchment of the wasteful economics of militarization and the perpetuation of international isolation. The combination of stubborn regime under economic duress sets off a vicious circle of economic failure, anti-marketization, and external confrontation. Escape from this predicament depends on external initiative focused on steering the regime back onto the path of ultra cautious reform, especially by easing its need for militarization. The viability of such an initiative depends on the extent the US is prepared to accept the regime in its current form. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Devadason, Evelyn Shyamala, Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah, and Thirunaukarasu Subramaniam. 2014. "Leveraging trade opportunities with non-traditional partners: the Malaysia–GCC perspective." The Pacific Review no. 27 (1):97-122
DOI: 10.1080/09512748.2013.848377
Abstract
This paper examines the impact of economic factors on bilateral trade flows between Malaysia and the GCC through estimations of panel data using a gravity model. In particular, the paper compares the determinants of bilateral trade and trade potentials between Malaysia and two regions, the non-traditional Gulf alliance and the traditional ASEAN counterpart, to provide insights for leveraging opportunities through trade with the former. The gravity estimates imply the importance of size effects, similarities in GDP and differences in factor endowments as drivers of trade flows between Malaysia and the GCC, underlying the fact that inter-industry trade dominates these flows. The opposite holds in the case for the Malaysia-ASEAN trade. Though export potentials for industrial products per se appear exhausted in trade with both regions, the Gulf region provides opportunities for Malaysia to export quantity-based final (end-use) products and to diversify its exporting strategy away from quality-based parts and components. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Contreras, Antonio P. 2014. "Sexualized bodies of the Filipino: Pleasure and desire as everyday truth and knowledge." Philosophia (Philippines) no. 15 (1):105-120.
http://ejournals.ph/index.php?journal=PIJP&page=article&op=viewArticle&path%5B%5D=7372
Abstract
This paper will show that attempts to control the body in late capitalism is replete with symbolic violence, but Filipinos have not succeeded in confining the body, thereby validating Foucault's (1980) critique of the repressive hypothesis. Ordinary narratives about the body in the Philippines exist not in the context of a settled template of silenced debates and repressed desires, but in the explosion of discourse and contestations, and of an intricate articulation between popular knowledge and truth, on one hand, and the ordinary and everyday experience of pleasure and desire, on the other.
Navapan, Nattika. 2013. "Absolute monarchy and the development of Bangkok's urban spaces." Planning Perspectives no. 29 (1):1-24
DOI: 10.1080/02665433.2013.802125
Abstract
This paper examines the development of Bangkok's urban spaces in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It aims to understand the ways Western culture influenced the development and use of urban spaces in this non-Western and non-colonized city. Thailand, then known as Siam, is unique as it was the only country in Southeast Asia that was not colonized by Western powers. Accordingly, the domestic political circumstances in Thailand played a critical role in the country's path to modernization. The primary shifts in accordance with the country's modernization were concentrated on the capital city and its society. Amongst the shifts of urban environment, the urban spaces in Bangkok were transformed and developed. The paper argues that the Siamese absolute monarch was a critical agent in the development process and that the modern spaces were developed in Bangkok as part of the king's wider political strategy. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Khorana, Sangeeta, and William A. Kerr. "Transforming Vietnam: a quest for improved efficiency and transparency in central government procurement." Policy & Politics 42, no. 1 (2014): 109-129.
DOI: 10.1332/030557312X655611
Abstract
This case study on Vietnam investigates how a country's institutional framework can determine its participation in the World Trade Organization's Government Procurement Agreement (GPA). Using a cost-benefit approach, this article explores the relationship between institutional framework and procurement liberalisation, and examines how effective institutional reforms can trigger liberalisation. Findings show that the critical success factors for institutional reform are political commitment, the ability to craft an appropriate agenda, and eventual compliance with rules. There is an inverse relationship between costs and benefits of institutional reform, suggesting that Vietnam might prefer employing GPA observer status as a means for procurement liberalisation. © Policy Press 2014.
Lewis, Blane D. 2013. "Urbanization and Economic Growth in Indonesia: Good News, Bad News and (Possible) Local Government Mitigation." Regional Studies no. 48 (1):192-207.
DOI: 10.1080/00343404.2012.748980
Abstract
Lewis B. D. Urbanization and economic growth in Indonesia: good news, bad news and (possible) local government mitigation, Regional Studies. Time-series analysis for Indonesia over the period 1960-2009 suggests that the level of urbanization is positively associated with economic growth but that the rate of change of urbanization is negatively correlated with growth of economic output. A sub-national dynamic panel investigation provides additional evidence of the positive and negative level and rate effects, respectively. The panel analysis also implies that the harmful impact of urban population growth is linked to insufficient local public infrastructure spending. Local governments that invest more heavily in infrastructure are better able to cope with the apparent detrimental effects of rapid urbanization on economic growth. © 2012 © 2012 Regional Studies Association.
Niedermeier, Silvan. 2014. "Imperial narratives: reading US soldiers' photo albums of the Philippine–American War." Rethinking History no. 18 (1):28-49.
DOI: 10.1080/13642529.2014.873581
Abstract
This paper explores the visual narratives of US soldiers' photo albums of the Philippine-American War. It focuses on the materiality, imagery, and narrative structure of these ego-documents and asks for their individual and social functions and usages. As I show, most albums of US soldiers framed the experience of war in the Philippines as a triumphant story of imperial conquest that dwelled on notions of masculinity, racial superiority, and exoticism. However, by analyzing the album of Lt. Koontz, who died during his military service in the Philippines, my paper also points to the unsettling potential of these albums and their shifting meaning once they reach the realm of the historical archive. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Neilson, Jeffrey. 2013. "Value chains, neoliberalism and development practice: The Indonesian experience." Review of International Political Economy no. 21 (1):38-69.
DOI: 10.1080/09692290.2013.809782
Abstract
This paper provides a critical analysis of the emergence of an approach within the practice of international development that adopts a 'value chain' discourse, and traces the conceptual underpinnings of this discourse and practice through its translation from scholarly literature. This practical application of value chain theory has involved the selective application and interpretation, by development practitioners, of key scholarly ideas on global commodity chains, development strategies and industrialization. The specific application of value chains in Indonesian development practice, however, is silent on other aspects of the global value chain framework, such as the role of the state in mediating development strategies, power asymmetries within chains, and world-historical circumstances that shape upgrading possibilities. Despite foundational roots in critical analyses of global capitalism, recent 'value chains for development' applications appear to be perpetuating a neoliberal development agenda, which is facilitating the enhanced penetration of multinational capital into the economy and lives of the rural and urban poor. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Yeung, Henry Wai-chung. 2013. "Governing the market in a globalizing era: Developmental states, global production networks and inter-firm dynamics in East Asia." Review of International Political Economy no. 21 (1):70-101
DOI: 10.1080/09692290.2012.756415
Abstract
This paper focuses on the changing governance of economic development in a globalizing era in relation to the dynamics of global value chains and global production networks. Based on recent development in such East Asian economies as South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore, I examine how, since the 1990s, the embedded relation between one variant of state institutions, known as the developmental state, and national firms, well integrated into global chains and networks spanning different territories and regions, has evolved. Because of the deepening strategic coupling of these national firms with lead firms in global industries, the developmental state's attempt to govern the market and to steer industrial transformation through direct policy interventions has become increasingly difficult and problematic. Through this process of strategic coupling, national firms have been gradually disembedded from state apparatuses and re-embedded in different global production networks that are governed by competitive inter-firm dynamics. While the state in these East Asian economies has actively repositioned its role in this changing governance, it can no longer be conceived as the dominant actor in steering domestic firms and industrial transformation. The developmental trajectory of these national economies becomes equally, if not more, dependent on the successful articulation of their domestic firms in global production networks spearheaded by lead firms. In short, inter-firm dynamics in global production networks tend to trump state-led initiatives as one of the most critical conditions for economic development. This paper theorizes further this significant role of global value chains and global production networks in the changing international political economy of development. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Richert, Lucas. "‘Therapy Means Political Change, Not Peanut Butter’: American Radical Psychiatry, 1968–1975." Social History of Medicine 27, no. 1 (2014): 104-121.
DOI: 10.1093/shm/hkt072
Abstract
As early as the 1950s, the profession of psychiatry in the United States began to experience a series of subtle adjustments. By the mid-1960s, the American Psychiatric Association was gripped and bound by the larger social, economic and political trends of the era. Widespread political activist movements focused on the Vietnam War, civil rights for blacks, and the elevation of feminism. Amid this contentious, transitional climate, factions in the field of mental health deliberated over best practices as well as broader questions of modernisation, scientific legitimacy and human rights. The Radical Caucus of the American Psychiatric Association was one such faction. It included black and women's wings and challenged other members of the APA to embrace the transformative zeitgeist of the 1960s, as well as connect these tenets to the practice of psychiatry. This paper offers a snapshot of an important period in the history of American psychiatry, politics, and culture. © 2013 The Author.
Junaenah, Sulehan, Rahamah Abu Bakar Noor, Awang Abd Hair, Yusof Abdullah Mohd, and Puay Liu Ong. " Development at the Margins: Livelihood and Sustainability of Communities at Malaysia-Indonesia Borders." Sociologija i prostor 51, no. 3 (197) (2014): 547-562.
DOI: 10.5673/sip.51.3.6
Abstract
Small communities living on the margin of development generally face a myriad of issues and challenges. Paradoxically, although livelihood is a major concern for these communities, their integration into the mainstream of development seems a remote and endless problem. This article, therefore, has three objectives. Firstly, it discusses the socio-economic dynamics of the Sarawak-Kalimantan border communities whose villages are obscured from the mainstream of development. Lately, villages and small townships along this border had caught the attention of the media, politicians, planners and researchers. This was the consequent result of media highlights on Malaysia-Indonesia border disputes and cultural issues, which were further expanded to encompass matters relating to national security and economic interests of both countries. However, the socio-economic plights of these border communities were seldom articulated. Secondly, based on case studies conducted between 2009 and 2010, this paper focuses on issues of livelihood and sustainability of these border communities, particularly the Bidayuh ethnic living in Serikin (Sarawak) and JagoiBabang (West Kalimantan). The studies especially focused on the participation of these villagers in the socio-economic spheres within the border areas, and also assessed to what extent the livelihoods of these villagers were influenced and affected by such dynamics. Lastly, by exploring the possible theoretical explanation of the unique social phenomenon taking place at the margin of development in Malaysia, this article examines the embedded cultural and social affiliations which help sustain the tradition of economic exchange between communities on both sides of the borders. © 2013 Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu - Institute for Social Research in Zagreb Sva prava pridržana - All rights reserved.
Panda, Jagannath P. "Factoring the RCEP and the TPP: China, India and the Politics of Regional Integration." Strategic Analysis 38, no. 1 (2014): 49-67.
DOI: 10.1080/09700161.2014.863462
Abstract
The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) are not necessarily two contending trade liberalising models, but their import and arrival have posed stiff political challenges for many countries, including China and India, Asia's two heavyweights. With these two initiatives, the regional trade of Asia is entering an interesting phase of liberalisation and integration. In fact, it is gradually becoming clear that the facets and nuances attached to these two trade liberalisation models will impact regional power politics massively in times to come. While the success of TPP hinges on the global economic authority of the US and how the negotiation process unfolds, the future dynamism of RCEP will depend heavily on how China and the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) conduct their negotiation process and accommodate the interests of other regional powers, including India. Hitherto, it has been no secret that both RCEP and TPP will greatly affect and influence ASEAN and the role of its free trade agreement (FTA) partner countries, including China and India. In this regional stratagem, China-India relations may witness new dynamics and power politics in East Asia or in the broader Asia-Pacific region. It may also open a new window of opportunity for India's greater integration with the East Asia region. India needs to analyse carefully the efficacy and implications of both RCEP and TPP to see how far they serve New Delhi's own regional interests. RCEP may eventually facilitate India's 'Look East' policy more effectively than TPP. The former allows New Delhi to coordinate with ASEAN+6 countries more effectively, to which China has so far been fundamentally opposed. © 2014 Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses.
Chandran, Suseela Devi. "Malaysia–India Defence Cooperation: Need for a Paradigm Shift before Strategic Partnership." Strategic Analysis 38, no. 1 (2014): 79-90.
DOI: 10.1080/09700161.2014.863466
Abstract
The objective of this article is to discuss defence cooperation between Malaysia and India in the post-Cold War era (1991-2012), mainly from Malaysia's perspective. The article is divided into four parts. First, the historical background of Malaysia-India defence cooperation during the colonial period until the Cold War is discussed briefly. Second, defence cooperation in the post-Cold War period involving the three services (air force, navy and army) is examined. Third, certain issues in Malaysia-India defence cooperation are analysed. The article concludes by arguing that in order for Malaysia to move towards more constructive defence relations with India, a paradigm shift is central to making the strategic partnership effective and meaningful. © 2014 Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses.
Rush, Howard, John Bessant, Mike Hobday, Eoghan Hanrahan, and Mauricio Zuma Medeiros. 2013. "The evolution and use of a policy and research tool: assessing the technological capabilities of firms." Technology Analysis & Strategic Management no. 26 (3):353-365
DOI: 10.1080/09537325.2013.851377
Abstract
Firms differ widely in their technological capabilities. Innovation policies are likely to be more or less successful depending upon the level of such abilities of those firms to which a policy is aimed. Without data on the proficiencies, strengths and weaknesses of firms within the target group(s), the construction and application of innovation or industrial policies are likely to miss salient factors in the ability of firms to benefit from the support that is intended. An in-depth knowledge of firms' capabilities can allow policy-makers to target support according to the specific needs of firms. This paper describes the Technology capability audit tool (or CAT) that was designed to assist policy-makers in differentiating between firms and in understanding their level of 'innovation readiness'. Examples of the use of the CAT are presented from South Korea, Thailand, Ireland, Brazil and the UK. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Enteen, Jillana B. "Transitioning Online Cosmetic Surgery Tourism in Thailand." Television & New Media 15, no. 3 (2014): 238-249.
DOI: 10.1177/1527476413509673
Abstract
In the past decade, the websites of Thai tourist agencies have expanded their offerings to include medical tourism, and medical tourism online has experienced dramatic changes in packaging and marketing. These shifts suggest a move from Thai-style surgical offerings that were defined as primarily cosmetic to tourist-package style sex/gender-related surgeries under the category of sexual reassignment surgery (SRS). The existence of these websites and the changes in the promotion of sex/gender-related medical tourism over time reveal nuanced interplay of discontinuous sex/gender regimes. By examining the changes on a single website during an eighteen-month period, I indicate larger trends in the Thai medical tourism industry online that I have collected in a three-year period. "Trans" theory - translation, transnational, transsexual, transactional, and transitive - is the framework from which I describe these dynamic, discontinuous, dialogic transitions. © The Author(s) 2013.
Cheah, Nuan Ping, Norman Wee Lin Chong, Jing Tan, Faridatul Akmam Morsed, and Shen Kuan Yee. 2014. "Electronic nicotine delivery systems: regulatory and safety challenges: Singapore perspective." Tobacco Control no. 23 (2):119-125.
DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050483
Abstract
Objective: Many electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are marketed as safer tobacco alternative products or effective cessation therapies. ENDS samples were evaluated for design features, including nicotine and glycols content. This could be useful in developing a legal framework to handle ENDS. Methods: Identification of the nicotine, glycerol and propylene glycol (PPG) contents was conducted using gas chromatography mass spectrometry with quantification performed using flame ionisation techniques. Results: Varying nicotine amounts were found in ENDS cartridges which were labelled with the same concentration. Chemicals such as PPG and glycerol were found to be present in the nicotine-containing liquid of the cartridges. ENDS varied in their contents and packaging information. Limited information was available on the contents of nicotine and other chemicals present in a variety of ENDS sampled. Conclusions: Based on samples tested in this study, many contain misleading information on product ingredients. The results show poor consistency between actual nicotine content analysed on ENDS cartridges and the amount labelled. These findings raise safety and efficacy concerns for current and would-be recreational users or those trying to quit smoking.
Kawasaki, Tomoya, Shinya Hanaoka, and Long Xuan Nguyen. "The valuation of shipment time variability in Greater Mekong Subregion." Transport Policy 32 (2014): 25-33.
DOI: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2014.01.001
Abstract
The value of shipment time variability is estimated using the stated preference data from shippers engaging in cross-border transport in Greater Mekong Subregion. Respondents are asked to choose between two alternatives which differ in terms of shipment time, cost, shipment time variability and departure time. In the study route, two bottlenecks (border and seaport) violate stability of shipment time. These two shipment time distributions are convoluted by Monte Carlo method. The results show that the value of schedule delay late is 5.6 times larger than normal travel time savings. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Yeo, Su-Jan, and Chye Kiang Heng. 2014. "An (Extra)ordinary Night Out: Urban Informality, Social Sustainability and the Night-time Economy." Urban Studies no. 51 (4):712-726.
DOI: 10.1177/0042098013489743
Abstract
A night out in the metropolis can offer a plethora of hedonistic experiences in urban spaces such as waterfront districts, shopping boulevards and cultural precincts. In stark contrast to this post-modern spectacle of contemporary nightlife are the mundane night-time activities that pervade the everyday spaces of ordinary people. Here, we are confronted with a tapestry of a different material culture-one that has evaded the lacklustre and homogeneous pattern of urban bars, pubs and clubs. This paper will illuminate the sociospatial dimensions of everyday (night)life in the neighbourhood of Toa Payoh Central, Singapore, and will demonstrate the resilience of urban informality in an increasingly formal and regulated global city like Singapore. It is contended that everyday (night)life has a significant role to play in the making of vibrant and liveable cities by helping to foster social sustainability in the forms of accessibility, tolerance, diversity and participation. © 2013 Urban Studies Journal Limited.
Suárez, David, and Jeffery H. Marshall. "Capacity in the NGO Sector: Results from a National Survey in Cambodia." VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 25, no. 1 (2014): 176-200.
DOI: 10.1007/s11266-012-9331-8
Abstract
Capacity has become a prominent theme in the literature on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the last few decades, due in part to the increasingly global role these organizations play in development. We analyze data obtained from a national sample of local and international NGOs operating in Cambodia, documenting capacity differences between these two groups as well as highlighting overall levels of capacity in the sector. The analysis covers a number of different organizational dimensions that have been associated with capacity, including structural characteristics and concrete management practices. Results suggest that international NGOs generally have greater capacity, but overall levels of capacity are relatively low for a variety of measures. We conclude with an exploratory cluster analysis that identifies four distinctive groups of NGOs based on capacity, providing additional insights into diversity within the sector. These findings will be useful for comparative NGO research and for capacity-building programs, in addition to helping establish an agenda for future research to monitor progress. © 2012 International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University.
Othman, Radiah, and Norli Ali. "NPO, Internal Controls, and Supervision Mechanisms in a Developing Country." VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 25, no. 1 (2014): 201-224.
DOI: 10.1007/s11266-012-9335-4
Abstract
The premise of this paper is that effective supervision and proper internal control system (ICS) can promote accountability and transparency, and this will attract more donors. However, in a developing country like Malaysia, it is common that proper accounting standards are not available, the laws are not enforced, and charities often struggle for survival. Debates on regulating nonprofit organizations (NPOs) have been sensitive to many and are often left unresolved, and some quarters believe that NPOs should be left to handle their own affairs. This paper provides evidence from a survey of 60 charities on the status of their ICS. It briefly describes the current state of regulations in Malaysia and makes a case for better monitoring of the sector, as this might be the reason NPOs are lacking in their ICS. We propose what type of regulation and assistance can be provided by the authorities to this sector, not only in Malaysia but also in other developing countries facing similar challenges. © 2012 International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University.
Lockhart, Clare. 2014. "Fixing US Foreign Assistance: Cheaper, Smarter, Stronger." World Affairs no. 176 (5):84-93.
http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/article/fixing-us-foreign-assistance-cheaper-smarter-stronger
Abstract
Foreign development is expensive, ineffective, and often resented by the intended beneficiaries, as argued by different economists. Projects designed in national capitals and foreign embassies are often divorced from the realities of the local lives of the people they intend to help, while the long time frames and rigidity of design mean that by the time a project rolls out, it is often irrelevant, even if money actually arrives after the overhead is paid to the food chain of delivery organizations. Multiple contractual layers mean too much of the original project money never even leaves international capital regions. The family of homegrown programs in Afghanistan, Indonesia, and Pakistan, and similar ones in Colombia, Mexico, and India, have proven it is possible to reach communities directly and at scale, cutting out the layers of contractors and NGOs that function as middlemen, while making communities the implementers of their own development in projects that achieve real results.
Tang, Hsiao Chink. (2014), Exchange Rate Volatility and Intra-Asia Trade: Evidence by Type of Goods. World Economy, 37: 335–352
DOI: 10.1111/twec.12095
Abstract
This paper examines the impact of intra-Asia exchange rate volatility on intra-Asia trade in primary goods, intermediate goods, equipment goods and consumption goods from 1980 to 2009. For Asia, the evidence shows that as intraregional exchange rate volatility increases, intraregional exports in these goods fall. This adverse impact is even more pronounced in the subregion of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)+5 comprising ASEAN member countries plus the People's Republic of China; Hong Kong, China; Japan; the Republic of Korea; and Taipei, China; and especially among intermediate and equipment exports. Again, the impact magnifies in an even smaller subgroup excluding the smaller ASEAN economies. These results underline the significant impact of exchange rate volatility on the region's production networks. For South Asia, however, exchange rate volatility appears to have a positive impact on exports. Still, caution is warranted given that South Asian economies trade relatively little with each other. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Snodin, Navaporn Sanprasert. "English naming and code‐mixing in Thai mass media." World Englishes 33, no. 1 (2014): 100-111.
DOI: 10.1111/weng.12071
Abstract
This paper examines the increasing role of English in the modern day mass media of Thailand, and the rapid increase in the use of English names and code-mixing since the turn of the century. It provides a description of the present day phenomena of English naming and code-mixing in both the broadcast and print media of Thailand. The paper also provides an assessment of the impact of English, which explains the adoption of English names or English-Thai hybrids, and the assimilation of Western cultural dimensions by the indigenous population of Thailand, who use English as a foreign language. The intended audience of the mass media in this study are Thais. The data supports knowledge about the widespread use of English among users in the Expanding Circle, and about world Englishes as mixed codes that are used among people who share a common language, other than English, for their intranational communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pefianco Martin, I. S. A. B. E. L. "Philippine English revisited." World Englishes 33, no. 1 (2014): 50-59.
DOI: 10.1111/weng.12054
Abstract
In this paper, I argue that the Three Circles Model of Kachru, a profoundly influential and instructive model for approaching the varieties of Englishes across the world, might be re-examined in the context of the Philippines, in order to better capture the sociolinguistic realities of Outer Circle speakers of English. Using the Philippines as an example, I hope to demonstrate that within the Outer Circle that is the Philippines, there are circles of English as well. While some educated Filipino scholars have rejected the dominance of American English in the Philippines, others remain ambivalent about the place of Philippine English in such domains such as English language teaching. And for a majority of the Filipinos, to whom English of whatever variety remains elusive and inaccessible, English is irrelevant. Thus, the situation for the Philippines is that there is an Inner Circle, an Outer Circle, and an Expanding circle of English. By presenting the Philippine experience of English through this framework of 'circles within circles,' I hope to offer a more nuanced position on the acceptability of Philippine English among Filipino users of the language. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brown, David West, and Teo Shi Jie. "Singapore English and styling the Ah Beng." World Englishes 33, no. 1 (2014): 60-84.
DOI: 10.1111/weng.12070
Abstract
This paper explores stylized renderings of Singapore English as such 'verbal art' is used by Singaporean youth in popular online forums. In order to analyze these stylizations, this study uses corpora collected from two forums frequented by Singaporean students. The data suggests that posters often use stylized representations to perform or to ventriloquize the identity of an Ah Beng (a kind of hustler or gangster). Implicated in such performances are sometimes complex negotiations of class, gender, and ethnicity. The relationship among the linguistic features central to our study and the social meanings signaled by those features suggest the value of approaches that emphasize the range of pragmatic and metapragmatic meanings or indexicalities that accrue to features in modeling variation in Singapore English. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Krauss, Steven Eric, Azimi Hamzah, Ismi Arif Ismail, Turiman Suandi, Siti Raba’ah Hamzah, Dzuhailmi Dahalan, and Fazilah Idris. 2014. "Parenting, Community, and Religious Predictors of Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes Among Muslim Adolescents." Youth & Society no. 46 (2):201-227
DOI: 10.1177/0044118X12464062
Abstract
Despite existing research on the contribution of social context and religiosity to adolescent behavioral outcomes, few studies have attempted to explore this topic among Muslim adolescents in non-Western settings, looking at both positive and negative outcomes. In response to this gap, the current study explored the effects of three dimensions of developmental assets (positive parenting, community support, and religiosity) on risk, prosocial, and thriving behaviors among Muslim adolescents (N = 895) from Malaysia. Hierarchical regression results revealed positive parenting as the greatest protective factor against risk behavior, religiosity as the most significant promotive factor of prosocial behaviors, and community support as the greatest contributor to adolescent thriving. In the final model, unique effects varied by outcome. The findings support the importance and universality of multiple levels of developmental assets for youth development, and highlight the need to better understand their interaction in non-Western cultural contexts. © The Author(s) 2012.
Sim, Tick N., and Jeffery E.H. Chin. 2014. "Do Mothers’ and Fathers’ Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting Interact? An Exploration on Schooling Aspects With a Singapore Adolescent Sample." Youth & Society no. 46 (2):286-300.
DOI: 10.1177/0044118X12441188
Abstract
Our study sought mainly to examine interactions between mothers' and fathers' authoritative and authoritarian parenting. A total of 284 adolescents (mean age 13.5) from 2 Singapore schools contributed self-report data on their parents' parenting and various schooling aspects. Prior to testing for interactions, adolescents with two authoritative parents were found to have greater interest in schooling and mastery goals than those with two authoritarian parents. In addition, fathers' parenting style contributed unique variance beyond mothers' for three aspects. Regarding interactions, five emerged, three involving mothers' and fathers' authoritative parenting and suggesting that authoritative parenting is particularly amenable to moderation. Overall, the five interactions point to the possibility that fathers' contributions are obscured if mothers are excluded and that authoritarian parenting can have positive effects in specific instances, although gender also needs to be considered. These results elucidate erstwhile obscured processes when interactions are not taken into account. © The Author(s) 2012.

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